The Best Hikes of Washington State (in order of shortest to longest)

The following highly rated hikes from across the web are in order from shortest hike to longest hike in time it takes to hike the trail. They are also in two categories, either easy or moderate. None of the hikes are too hard to complete for a beginning to intermediate hiker.

I’ve included alltrails.com as my source URL because they have the best website I’ve found for hiking information.

“Gets snow in winter” means if there’s a cold front coming through the region, it is likely that this hike will be covered in snow. “Gets snow in winter” is not to say the places without the indication never get snow. Sometimes snow can happen November-March in Washington state.

 

  1. Carbon River Rain Forest Nature Trail

0.3 miles – 6 min loop hike (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/carbon-river-rain-forest-nature-trail

carbonriver

 

 

2. Picture Lake Path

0.4 miles – 8 min loop hike (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/picture-lake-path

picturelake

3. Iron Creek Falls

0.2 miles – 4 min hike (8 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-creek-falls

ironcreek

4. Ski Hill Trail

0.4 miles – 9 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ski-hill-loop-trail

skihill

 

5. Deception Falls Interpretive Trail

0.6 miles – 12 min loop hike (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/deception-falls-interpretive-trail

deceptionfalls

6. North Fork Sauk Falls Trail

0.3 miles – 6 min hike (12 min total there and back) (only open April-December)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/north-fork-sauk-falls-trail

northfork

7. Trail of the Shadows Trail

0.7 miles – 13 min loop hike (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/trail-of-the-shadows-trail

trailoftheshadows

8. Harstine Island State Park Trail

0.7 miles – 14 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/harstine-island-state-park-trail

hartine

9. Panther Creek Falls Trail 137

0.4 miles – 8 min hike (16 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/panther-creek-falls-trail-137

panthercreek

10. Layser Cave Trail

0.4 miles – 8 min hike (16 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/layser-cave-trail

laysercave

11. Quinault Rain Forest Nature Trail

0.9 miles – 18 min loop hike – (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/quinault-rain-forest-nature-trail

quinaultrain

12. Nisqually Vista Trail

1 mile – 19 min loop hike (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nisqually-vista-trail

nisqually

13. Discovery Trail Ft. Steilacoom

1.1 miles – 22 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/discovery-trail-ft-steilacoom

discoverytrail

14. Gold Creek Pond Trail

1.2 miles – 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/gold-creek-pond-trail

goldcreek

15. Weatherwax Trail

1.2 miles – 23 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/weatherwax-trail

weatherwaxtrail

16. Nolte State Park Deep

13 reviews – 1.4 miles – 28 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nolte-state-park-deep-lake

nolte

17. Bagley Creek Loop Trail

1.4 miles – 30 min loop hike (only open July-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bagley-creek-loop-trail

bagley

18. Kubota Garden Natural Area

0.8 miles – 17 min hike (34 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/kubota-garden-natural-area-trails

kubota

19. Purcell Falls Trail

0.9 miles – 17 min hike (34 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/purcell-falls

purcell

20. Washington Park Trail

2.1 miles – 43 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/washington-park-trail

washingtonpark

21. Boulder Cave Trail

1.2 miles – 24 min hike (48 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/boulder-cave-barrier-free-trail

boulder

22. Cascade Lake Trail

2.4 miles – 50 min loop hike (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cascade-lake-trail

cascadelake

23. Fallsview Canyon Trail

1.3 miles – 25 min hike (50 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/fallsview-canyon-trail

fallsview

24. Hummocks Trail

2.5 miles – 51 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hummocks-trail

hummocks

25. Silver Falls Trail

2.8 miles – 57 min loop hike (only open May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-falls-trail

silverfalls

26. Grand Forest Park Trail

2.8 miles – 57 min loop hike
http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/grand-forest-park-trail

grandforest

27. Murhut Falls Trail

1.4 miles – 29 min hike (58 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/murhut-falls-trail

murhut

28. Penrose Point State Park Trail

2.8 miles – 58 min loop hike – 1 hr 16 min drive

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/penrose-point-state-park-trail

penrose-point-state-park-trail

29. Obstruction Pass Trail

1.4 miles – 29 min hike (58 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/obstruction-pass-trail

obstruction

30. Dosewallips Steam Donkey Trail

3 miles – 1 hr 2 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/dosewalips-steam-donkey-trail

dosewallips-steam-donkey-trail

31. Nathan Chapman Memorial Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 3 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nathan-chapman-memorial-trail

nathan-chapman-memorial-trail

32. Damon Point State Park Trail

3.2 miles – 1 hr 4 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/damon-point-state-park-trail

damon-point-state-park-trail

33. Cowiche Canyon Conservancy Trails

3.3 miles – 1 hr 5 min loop hike (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cowiche-canyon-conservancy-trails

cowiche-canyon-conservancy-trails

34. Cape Flattery Trail

1.2 miles – 33 min loop hike (1 hr 6 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cape-flattery-trail

cape-flattery-trail

35. Naches Peak Loop Trail

3.4 miles – 1 hr 10 min loop hike (July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/naches-peak-loop-trail

SONY DSC

36. Sol Duc Falls Trail

1.7 miles – 35 min hike (1 hr 10 min total there and back) (May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sol-duc-falls-trail

sol-duc-falls-trail

37. Ebey’s Landing Trail

3.5 miles – 1 hr 11 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ebeys-landing-trail

ebeys-landing-trail

38. Umtanum Creek Falls Trail

1.8 miles – 36 min hike (1 hr 12 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open February-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/umtanum-creek-falls-trail

DCIM100GOPROGOPR0340.

39. Steamboat Rock Trail

3.8 miles – 1 hr 17 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/steamboat-rock-hike-poliganders-family-hikes

steamboat-rock-trail

40. Quinault Loop Trail

4 miles – 1 hr 20 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-quinault-loop-trail

quinault-loop-trail

41. Bowman Bay via Rosario Head Trail

4 miles – 1 hr 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bowman-bay-rosario-head-trail

bowman-bay-via-rosario-head-trail

42. Meadowdale Beach Trails

2.3 miles – 45 min hike (1 hr 30 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/meadowdale-county-park-and-beach-trails

meadowdale-beach-trails

44. Adventure Trail

2.3 miles – 48 min hike (1 hr 36 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/adventure-trail

adventure-trail

45. Pinnacle Peak Saddle Trail

2.5 miles – 50 min hike (1 hr 40 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/pinnacle-peak-trail

pinnacle-peak-saddle-trail

46. Spirit of America Trail

2.5 miles – 52 min hike (1 hr 44 min total there and back) (only open September-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/america-trail

spirit-of-america-trail

47. Sequalitchew Creek Trail

2.6 miles – 54 min hike (1 hr 48 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sequalitchew-creek

sequalitchew-creek-trail

48. Guemes Mountain

2.6 miles – 54 min hike – (1 hr 48 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/guemes-mountain

guemes

49. Golden Gate Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 20 min loop hike (only open July-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/golden-gate-trail

golden-gate-trail

50. Skyline Loop Trail

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min loop hike (only open July-September)
http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/skyline-loop-trail

skyline-loop-trail

51. Iron Goat Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-goat-trail

iron-goat-trail

52. Sunrise Rim Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sunrise-rim-trail

sunrise-rim-trail

53. Lovers Lane Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lovers-lane-trail

lovers-lane-trail

54. Sauk Mountain Trail

2.8 miles – 56 min hike (1 hr 52 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sauk-mountain-trail

sauk-mountain-trail

55. Lower Falls Creek Trail

3 miles – 1 hr hike (2 hrs total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-falls-creek-trail

lower-falls-creek-trail

56. Duthie Mountain Bike Park

3 miles – 1 hr 1 min hike (2 hrs 2 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/duthie-mountain-bike-park

duthie-mountain-bike-park

57. Sammamish River Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 1 min hike (2 hrs 2 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sammamish-river-trail

sammamish-river-trail

58. High Rock Lookout Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 2 min hike (2 hrs 4 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/high-rock-lookout-trail

high-rock-lookout-trail

59. Hurricane Hill Trail

3.2 miles – 1 hr 4 min hike (2 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hurricane-hill-trail

hurricane-hill-trail

60. Heybrook Lookout Trail

1.9 miles – 38 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/heybrook-lookout-trail

heybrook-lookout-trail

61. Copper Creek Trail

3.3 miles – 1 hr 8 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/copper-creek-trail

copper-creek-trail

62. Fort Ebey State Park Loop

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 18 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/fort-ebey-state-park-loop

fort-ebey-state-park-loop

63. Sequalitchew Creek Trail

3.3 miles – 1 hr 8 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sequalitchew-creek–2

sequalitchew-creek-trail2

64. Hamilton Mountain and Rodney Falls Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 19 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hamilton-mountain-and-rodney-falls

hamilton-mountain-and-rodney-falls-trail

65. Lake 22 Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 20 min loop hike (only open May-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-22-trail

lake-22-trail

66. Kelly Butte Trail (#1031)

3.5 miles – 1 hr 10 min hike (2 hrs 20 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/kelly-butte-trail

lake-22-trail

67. Hamilton Mountain Loop Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hamilton-mountain-loop-trail

hamilton-mountain-loop-trail

68. Lake Christine Trail

3.6 miles – 1 hr 14 min hike (2 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-christine-trail-to-mt-beljica

DSC_0719

69. Bridal Veil Falls Trail

3.8 miles – 1 hr 17 min hike (2 hrs 34 min total here and back) (June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bridal-veil-falls-trail

bridal-veil-falls-trail

70. Sauer’s Mountain

5.2 miles – 1 hr 47 min hike (2 hrs 34 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sauers-mountain

sauers-mountain

71. Coulon Beach Park Trails

3.8 miles – hike 1 hr 17 min (2 hrs 34 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/coulon-beach-park

coulon-beach-park-trails

72. Iron Horse Trail: Upper Twin Falls to Mine Creek

5.4 miles – 1 hr 48 min hike (2 hrs 36 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-horse-trail-upper-twin-falls-to-mine-creek

iron-horse-trail-upper-twin-falls-to-mine-creek

73. Hole-in-the-Wall Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 19 min hike (2 hrs 38 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hole-in-the-wall-trail

hole-in-the-wall-trail

74. Thomas Lake Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 19 min hike (2 hrs 38 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/thomas-lake-trail

thomas-lake-trail

75. Glacier View Trail (#267)

4.1 miles – 1 hr 24 min hike (2 hrs 48 min total there and back) – 2 hr 7 min drive (July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/glacier-view-trail

glacier-view-trail-267

76. The Ozette Loop Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hr 54 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cape-alava-loop

ozettelooptrail

77. Lava Canyon Trail

4.4. miles – 1 hr 28 min hike (2 hrs 56 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lava-canyon-trail

lava-canyon-trail

78. Harrys Ridge Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hrs 57 min hike (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/harrys-ridge

harrys-ridge-trail

79. Ozette Triangle Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hrs 59 min hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ozette-triangle-trail

ozette-triangle-trail

80. Silver Star Trail

4.4 miles – 1 h 30 min hike (3 hrs total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-star-trail

silver-star-trail

81. Ape Cave Trail

4.6 miles – 1 hr 32 min hike (3 hrs 4 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ape-cave-trail

ape-cave-trail

82. Frenchman Coulee

4.8 miles – 1 hr 36 min hike (3 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/frenchman-coulee

frenchman-coulee

83. Quinault River Pony Bridge Trail

4.8 miles – 1 hr 36 min hike (3 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/quinault-river-pony-bridge-trail

quinault-river-pony-bridge-trail

84. South Bay Trail

4.9 miles – 1 hr 39 min hike (3 hrs 18 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/south-bay-trail

south-bay-trail

85. Larch Mountain Trail

5 miles – 1 hr 40 min hike (3 hrs 20 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/larch-mtn

larch-mountain-trail

86. Falls Creek Trail Loop

5.1 miles – 1 hr 42 min hike (3 hrs 24 min total there and back) gets snow in winter  (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/falls-creek-trail

falls-creek-trail-loop

87. Sheep Lake Trail

5.1 miles – 1 hr 42 min hike – (3 hrs 24 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sheep-lake-trail

sheep-lake-trail

88. Observation Peak Trail

5.2 miles – 1 hr 44 min hike (3 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/observation-peak-trail

observation-peak-trail

89. Tolmie Peak Trail

5.2 miles – 1 hr 46 min hike (3 hrs 32 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tolmie-peak-lookout-trail

tolmie-peak-trail

90. Anderson and Watson Lakes Trail

5.3 miles – 1 hr 46 min hike (3 hrs 32 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/anderson-watson-lakes-trail

anderson-and-watson-lakes-trail

91. Comet and Christine Falls

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min hike (3 hrs 38 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/comet-falls-trail

comet-and-christine-falls

92. Tommy Thompson Trail

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min hike (3 hrs 38 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tommy-thompson-trail

tommy-thompson-trail

93. Goat Lake Trail

10.7 miles – 3 hrs 39 min loop hike (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/goat-lake-trail

goat-lake-trail

94. Round Mountain Trail

5.5. miles – 1 hr 50 min hike (3 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/round-mountain-trail

round-mountain-trail

95. Oyster Dome Trail

5.3 miles – 1 hr 51 min hike (3 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open May-August)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/oyster-dome-trail

oyster-dome-trail

96. Silver Lake Way Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 53 min hike (3 hrs 46 min total there and back) (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-lakes-trail

silver-lake-way-trail

97. Mount Fremont Lookout Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/mount-fremont-lookout-trail

mount-fremont-lookout-trail

98. Soos Creek Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/soos-creek-trail

sooscreek

99. Tonga Ridge and Mount Sawyer

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back)  (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tonga-ridge-and-mount-sawyer

tonga-ridge-and-mount-sawyer

100. Summit Lake Trail

5.9 miles – 1 hr 59 min hike (3 hrs 58 min) (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/summit-lake-trail-wa-1177–2

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

101. Old Sauk River Trail

5.8 miles – 2 hrs 1 min hike (4 hrs 2 min there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/old-sauk-trail

old-sauk-river-trail

102. Petes Creek Trail to Colonel Bob Peak Trail

6.1 miles – 2 hrs 1 min hike (4 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/petes-creek-colonel-bob-peak-trail

petes-creek-trail-to-colonel-bob-peak-trail

103. Sheep Lake and Sourdough Gap Trail

5.9 miles –  2 hrs 1 min (4 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sheep-lake-and-sourdough-gap-trail

sheep-lake-and-sourdough-gap-trail

104. Larrabee State Park Campground

12.4 miles – 4 hrs 13 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/larrabee-state-park-campground

larrabee-state-park-campground

105. Snow Lake Trail

6.6 miles – 2 hr 13 min hike (4 hr 26 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/snow-lake-trail

snow-lake-trail

106. Shi Shi Beach Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 13 min hike (4 hrs 26 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/shi-shi-beach-trail

shi-shi-beach-trail

107. Sourdough Gap (past Sheep Lake)

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 13 min hike (4 hrs 26 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sourdough-gap-past-sheep-lake

sourdough-gap-past-sheep-lake

108. Lower Lake Lena Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 14 min hike (4 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-lake-lena

lower-lake-lena-trail

109. Turtleback Mountain South Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 17 min hike (4 hrs 34 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/turtleback-mountain-trail

turtleback-mountain-south-trail

110. Noble Knob Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 18 min hike (4 hrs 36 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/noble-knob-trail

noble-knob-trail

111. Yellow Aster Butte Trail

7.1 miles – 2 hrs 21 min hike (4 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/yellow-aster-butte-trail

yellow-aster-butte-trail

112. Spray Park Trail

7.2 miles – 2 hrs 28 min hike (4 hrs 56 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/spray-park-trail

spray-park-trail

113. Red Mountain via Old Commonwealth Trail

7.3 miles – 2 hrs 33 min hike (5 hrs 6 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/commonwealth-basin-red-pass-trail

red-mountain-via-old-commonwealth-trail

114. Discovery Trail

7.5 miles – 2 hrs 30 min hike (5 hrs total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/discovery-trail

discovery

115. Beckler Peak

7.5 miles – 2 hrs 34 min hike (5 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/beckler-peak-lookout-site

beckler-peak

116. Skyline Divide Trail

7.7 miles – 2 hrs 36 min hike (5 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/skyline-divide

skyline-divide-trail

117. Lewis River Falls Trail

7.7 miles – 2 hrs 42 min hike (5 hrs 24 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lewis-river-trail-out-and-back

lewis-river-falls-trail

118. Bare Mountain Trail

8.2 miles – 2 hrs 44 min hike (6 hrs 28 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bare-mountain-trail

bare-mountain-trail

119. Coldwater Lake Trail

8.3 miles – 2 hrs 45 min hike (5 hrs 30 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/coldwater-lake-trail

coldwater-lake-trail

120. Otter and Big Creek Falls Via Taylor River Trail

8.3 miles – 2 hrs 50 min hike (5 hrs 40 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/otter-and-big-creek-falls-trail

otter-and-big-creek-falls-via-taylor-river-trail

121. Melakwa Lake via Denny Creek Trail

8.5 miles – 2 hr 51 min hike (5 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/melakwa-lake-trail

melakwa-lake-via-denny-creek-trail

122. Lake Stuart Trail

8.6 miles – 2 hrs 57 min hike (5 hrs 54 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/stuart-lakes-trail

lake-stuart-trail

123. Lake Ann

9.1 miles – 3 hrs 1 min hike (6 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-ann

lake-ann

124. South Coldwater Trail to Lakes Trail

18.7 miles – 6 hrs 17 min loop hike (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/south-coldwater-trail-to-lakes-trail

south-coldwater-trail-to-lakes-trail

125. Packwood Lake Trail

9.2 miles – 3 hrs 9 min hike (6 hrs 18 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/packwood-lake-trail

packwood-lake-trail

126. Gobblers Knob/Lake George Trail

9.5 miles – 3 hrs 10 min hike (6 hrs 20 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/gobblers-knob-lake-george-trail

gobblers-knoblake-george-trail

127. Green Lake Trail

9.5 miles – 3 hrs 16 min hike (6 hrs 32 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/green-lake-trail

green-lake-trail

128. Crystal Mountain Trail

9.6 miles – 3 hrs 17 min hike (6 hrs 34 min total there and back) (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/crystal-mountain-trail

crystal-mountain-trail

129. Cutthroat Lake and Cutthroat Pass

9.6 miles – 3 hrs 20 min hike (6 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cutthroat-lake-and-cutthroat-pass

cutthroat-lake-and-cutthroat-pass

130. Dungeness Spit Trail

10.2 miles – 3 hrs 29 min hike (6 hrs 58 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/dungeness-spit-trail

dungeness-spit-trail

131. Wonderland Trail to Panhandle Gap

11.4 miles – 3 hrs 50 min hike (7 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/summerland-trail

wonderland-trail-to-panhandle-gap

132. Palisades Trail (#1198)

11.3 miles – 3 hrs 53 min hike (7 hrs 46 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/palisades-trail–2

palisades-trail-1198

133. Boulder Lakes Trail

11.4 miles – 3 hr 54 min hike (7 hr 48 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/boulder-lakes-trail

boulder-lakes-trail

134. Lower Dungeness Trail

11.7 miles – 3 hrs 58 min hike (7 hrs 56 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-dungeness-trail

lower-dungeness-trail

135. Lake Valhalla Trail

11.9 miles – 4 hrs 2 min hike (8 hrs 4 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-valhalla

lake-valhalla-trail

136. Lower Siouxon Creek Trail

13.4 miles – 4 hrs 34 min hike (9 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open February-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-siouxon-creek-trail

lower-siouxon-creek-trail

137. Colonel Bob Trail

13.6 miles – 4 hrs 38 min hike (9 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/colonel-bob-mountain-trail

colonel-bob-trail

138. Chehalis Western Trail

13.8 miles – 4 hrs 41 min (9 hrs 22 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/chehalis-western-trail

chehalis-western-trail

139. Flapjack Lakes Trail

14.2 miles – 4 hrs 51 min hike (9 hrs 42 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/flapjack-lakes-trail

flapjack-lakes-trail

140. Third Beach to Hoh River

15.6 miles – 5 hr 17 min hike (10 hr 34 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/third-beach-to-oil-city

third-beach-to-hoh-river

141. Shi Shi to Ozette River Beach Trail

17.9 miles – 6 hrs 1 min hike (12 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/olympic-coast-north-backpacking

shi-shi-to-ozette-river-beach-trail

142. Spruce Railroad Trail

20.6 miles – 6 hrs 36 min hike (13 hrs 12 min total there and back) (spring 2017)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/old-olympic

spruce-railroad-trail

143. Siouxon Trail

21.3 miles – 7 hrs 11 min hike (14 hrs 22 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/siouxon-trail

siouxontrail

144. Ingalls Creek Trail to Lake Ingalls

28.4 miles – 9 hrs 33 min hike (19 hrs 6 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ingalls-creek-trail

ingalls-creek-trail-to-lake-ingalls

145. Hoh River Trail

32.8 miles – 10 hrs 48 min hike (21 hrs 36 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hoh-river-trail

hoh-river-trail

146. Duckabush River to Lacrosse Pass Trail

41.9 miles – 14 hrs 16 min hike (28 hrs 32 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/duckabush-river-trail

duckabush-river-to-lacrosse-pass-trail

Fastest Growing Occupations (above 27% growth rate, average is 7%)

Wind turbine service technicians

Wind turbine service technicians, also known as windtechs, install, maintain, and repair wind turbines.

education requirement: Technical school, trained by employer after hiring

growth rate: 108%

salary median: $51,050

 

Occupational Therapy Assistants

Occupational therapy assistants help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy assistants are directly involved in providing therapy to patients. Assistants work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in occupational therapy assistant program

growth rate: 40%

salary median: $54,520

 

Occupational Therapy Aides

Occupational therapy aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Aides work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: High school diploma, on the job training

growth rate: 39%

salary median: $21,920

 

Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides

Physical therapist assistants, sometimes called PTAs, and physical therapist aides work under the direction and supervision of physical therapists. They help patients who are recovering from injuries and illnesses regain movement and manage pain.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in physical therapy

growth rate: 41%

salary median: $42,980

 

Home Health Aides

Home health aides help people with disabilities, chronic illness, or cognitive impairment with activities of daily living. They often help older adults who need assistance. In some states, home health aides may be able to give a client medication or check the client’s vital signs under the direction of a nurse or other healthcare practitioner.

education requirement: High school diploma, hospice or home health agency for formal training and standardized test

growth rate: 38%

salary median: $21,920

 

Commercial Divers

Work below surface of water, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment.

education requirement: Associate’s degree of postsecondary certificate, licensure, dive training and safety training program

growth rate: 37%

salary median: $50,470

 

Nurse Anesthetists, Nurse Midwives, and Nurse Practitioners

Nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners, also referred to as advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), coordinate patient care and may provide primary and specialty healthcare. The scope of practice varies from state to state.

education requirement: Master’s degree in ARNP, state and national certification exam

growth rate: 31%

salary median: $104,740

 

Physical Therapist

Physical therapists, sometimes called PTs, help injured or ill people improve their movement and manage their pain. These therapists are often an important part of the rehabilitation, treatment, and prevention of patients with chronic conditions, illnesses, or injuries.

education requirement: Doctor of Physical Therapy degree, licensure

growth rate: 34%

salary median: $84,020

 

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

Drive ambulances in transporting sick, injured of convalescent persons. Remove and replace soiled linens or equipment to maintain sanitary conditions. Place patients on stretchers and load stretchers into ambulances.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: 33%

salary median: $23,740

 

Occupational Therapy Aides

Occupational therapy aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Aides work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in occupational therapy assistance, licensure

growth rate: 31%

salary median: $27,800

 

Physician Assistants

Physician assistants, also known as PAs, practice medicine on teams with physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare workers. They examine, diagnose, and treat patients.

education requirement: Master’s degree, licensure

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $98,180

 

Operations Research Analysts

Operations research analysts use advanced mathematical and analytical methods to help organizations investigate complex issues, identify and solve problems, and make better decisions.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree for entry-level positions, Master’s degree or Ph.D. in operations research, management science, analytics, math, engineering, computer science, or another technical or quantitative field

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $78,630

 

Personal Financial Advisors

Personal financial advisors provide advice on investments, insurance, mortgages, college savings, estate planning, taxes, and retirement to help individuals manage their finances.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree but a Master’s degree and certification can improve chances for advancement

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $89,160

 

Cartographers and Photogrammetrists  

Cartographers and photogrammetrists collect, measure, and interpret geographic information in order to create and update maps and charts for regional planning, education, emergency response, and other purposes.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree in cartography, geography, or geomatics, surveying is the most common path of entry into this occupation, licensure in some states

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $61,880

 

Genetic Counselors  

Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. They provide information and support to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.

education requirement: Master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics, board certification

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $72,090

 

Interpreters and Translators 

Interpreters and translators convert information from one language into another language. Interpreters work in spoken or sign language; translators work in written language.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree, knowledge of at least one other language, job specific training program

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $44,190

 

Audiologists 

Audiologists diagnose, manage, and treat a patient’s hearing, balance, or ear problems.

education requirement: Doctoral degree, licensure

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $74,890

 

Hearing Aid Specialists 

Select and administer tests to evaluate hearing or related disabilities. Administer basic hearing tests including air conduction, bone conduction, or speech audiometry tests. Train clients to use hearing aids or other augmentative communication devices. Create or modify impressions for earmolds and hearing aid shells. Maintain and repair hearing aids or other communication devices. Demonstrate assistive listening devices to clients. Diagnose and treat hearing or related disabilities under the direct of an audiologist. Perform basic screening procedures such as pure tone screening, otoacoustic screening, immittance screening, and screening of ear canal status using otoscope. Assist audiologists in performing aural procedures such as real ear measurements, speech audiometry, auditory brainstem responses, electronystagmography, and cochlear implant mapping.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: 27%

salary median: $49,600

 

Optometrists 

Optometrists examine the eyes and other parts of the visual system. They also diagnose and treat visual problems and manage diseases, injuries, and other disorders of the eyes. They prescribe eyeglasses or contact lenses as needed.

education requirement: Doctor of Optometry, licensure

growth rate: 27%

salary median: $103,900

Political Positions on the Spectrum Explained in Plain English

 

LIBERTARIAN

A libertarian supports…

  • maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters
  • a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence
  • individual responsibility
  • private charity
  • diverse lifestyles
  • the free market
  • defending civil liberties
  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • sanctuary cities
  • Edward Snowden
  • fracking
  • clean alternative energy
  • oil drilling
  • felony voting rights

A libertarian opposes…

  • government bureaucracy
  • excessive taxation
  • Planned Parenthood funding
  • death penalty
  • Obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • border wall
  • Common Core
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • Affirmative Action
  • Mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • climate change regulations

 

REPUBLICAN

A republican supports…

  • free market capitalism
  • free enterprise
  • business
  • a strong national defense
  • deregulation
  • restrictions on labor unions
  • social-conservative policies
  • traditional values (usually Christian in foundation)
  • War on Drugs
  • school choice
  • individual achievement
  • fracking
  • death penalty
  • border wall
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • USA Patriot Act
  • oil drilling

A republican opposes…

  • immigration amnesty
  • abortion rights
  • Planned Parenthood
  • drugs
  • Obamacare
  • Common Core
  • gun control
  • minimum wage
  • estate tax
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • global warming/climate change regulations
  • same-sex marriage
  • drug price regulation
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • sanctuary cities
  • public campaign finance
  • Edward Snowden
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • felony voting rights

 

POPULIST

A populist supports…

  • death penalty
  • obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • border wall
  • Common Core
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • climate change regulations
  • clean alternative energy

A populist opposes…

  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • planned parenthood funding
  • sanctuary cities
  • Edward Snowden
  • fracking
  • oil drilling
  • felony voting rights

 

 

DEMOCRAT

A democrat supports…

  • protection of social programs
  • consumer protection programs
  • workplace safety regulations
  • equal opportunity and racial equality
  • regulation against pollution in the environment
  • clean alternative energy
  • scientific consensus on climate change
  • cap-and-trade policies
  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • Planned Parenthood funding
  • Obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • sanctuary cities
  • Common Core
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • Edward Snowden
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • felony voting rights

A democrat opposes…

  • death penalty
  • border wall
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • fracking
  • oil drilling

Why We Should Abolish Compulsory Schooling

criticalthinkers

(source)

The problem with compulsory schooling is that it’s authoritarian and ineffective as a method of educating individuals:

  1. It violates liberty for parents and children
  2. It teaches authoritarianism as a way to get what you want and is undemocratic
  3. Intelligence cannot be obtained through force
  4. It produces a population of passive, obedient workers and consumers
  5. It’s a surveillance state environment
  6. It’s classist

 

1. It violates liberty for parents and children…

There is no choice in the matter if school is compulsory. You go to school or you (or the parent) get a fine, community service, or even jail time. Sometimes a court will order mandatory counseling, parenting classes, “support groups”, or alternative schools.

When I was reading about truancy laws, almost every source I read had a bias that you were a parents who wanted to learn how to make your kid go to school, and that if you just obeyed, you wouldn’t have anything to worry about.

It reminded me of when the NSA wiretapping program was found out. A common argument at the time was that if you had nothing to hide, you have no business worrying about the wiretapping program.

 

2. It teaches authoritarianism as a way to get what you want, and is undemocratic…

  1. there is a central authority (such as a teacher, school administrator, adults, etc.)
  2. limited political freedoms (such as when you can speak, what you can say, when you can go to the bathroom, etc.)
  3. an emotional basis of legitimacy (“because I said so”)
  4. political opposition suppression (asking “why” it is necessary to follow a procedure is not tolerated)

 

3. Intelligence cannot be obtained through force…

Children and young adults are given far too many arbitrary assortments of subjects to grasp. For 20 minutes you will learn fractions, then a bell rings and before you can finish your thought process, it’s time to read about the Vikings for another 20 minutes. And did you know the Earth’s lithosphere is composed of 7-8 major plates?

This fights against the natural process of learning. Learning is not completed in uniformly structured random chunks. That would be like learning to cook by following the directions on a collage of cut and pasted recipe parts.

The most common argument I see people state in criticism of not having compulsory schooling is, “how will anyone learn reading, writing, and arithmetic?”

The truth is that reading, writing and arithmetic can be taught in a very short amount of time. Some say around 100 hours but I haven’t found any hard evidence for the 100 hour number so I’m skeptical.

What’s not learned in around 100 hours is intelligence. Intelligence cannot be achieved through threats (bad grades, taking things away, low test scores).

The way formal schooling is set up, 30-40 children are emotionally and intellectually dependent on 1 adult per classroom. A child cannot even go to the bathroom without asking permission and getting a bureaucratic slip of paper signed by an authority first.

This is done in the name of safety.

But how much liberty are you willing to give up in the name of safety? Plenty of things are dangerous that we do every day without thought that could potentially be banned in the name of safety. Going to the bathroom has to be the least dangerous.

As far as intellectual dependence, a student’s growth is stunted because he or she will have a task, say, adding up numbers, and won’t be allowed to continue learning further without the authority’s approval first. This start and stop method of learning keeps everyone at the same basic level. Whereas, if the environment were more free, a student would be able to add up the numbers, and when they are finished, look on to the next task or page, and work as fast or slow as they need to.

There is a false assumption that has no evidence for it, that without Big Brother compulsory schooling, everyone would fall behind and be illiterate. I argue that compulsory schooling is what is making everyone fall behind and remain illiterate far more than without compulsory schooling.

Imagine 2 students. One is 5 years old and the other is 9 years old. They both learn to read at the same time, different ages. By age 13, they can both read exactly the same level and it’s not apparent what age they first learned to read.

However, in compulsory school, we put the 5 year old in the “gifted” program and the 9 year old in special ed.

The truth is that not everyone learns how to read or even should learn how to read at the same age. 

Just like how children physically grow at different rates, we don’t lengthen their limbs with braces if they’re not 3ft tall by a certain age, so we shouldn’t force children to read according to their age average.

 

4. It produces a population of passive, obedient workers and consumers

In classrooms around the country, there is the authority (teacher) and the subjects (students). The authority talks at the subjects and disseminates information. The subjects passively consume this information as if watching television.

There is no engagement. No dialogue. No democracy.

Imagine if you were in a conversation and the other person expected and enforced that you do not speak the entire time while they drone on for hours. You would probably have a hard time paying attention the full amount of time, right?

Why do we expect different of children who are still developmentally learning skills like attention?

Every breath in a classroom is regulated and surveilled, unless, however, you’re working diligently. There is no room for human behavior. No wonder status quo schools are rampant with behavioral problems from their students. They are subconsciously, and naturally rebelling against oppression.

Asking “why” is not tolerated. There simply isn’t time. Subjects are expected to simply accept that the pilgrims came to America, the Native Americans died from smallpox, and then what was left of them gathered together for a peaceful meal that we now have a holiday for.

If anyone told you a story as disjointed as this, you would not be wrong to ask for clarification, but we set a double standard with children, who we accept as having no rights and everyone is fine with that.

I disagree. Children deserve rights.

But this is the world we live in. School prepares from a very young age, compliance or consequences for being anything other than passive, obedient workers and consumers.

 

5. It’s a surveillance state environment

Imagine working in an environment where you had to ask permission of your boss in order to use the bathroom. But again, we accept as a society that children deserve no rights.

There is no trust of children all in the name of keeping them safe. It has created a nanny state in our schools where children are taught to be helpless and at the mercy of their authority figures.

 

6. It’s classist

What would you think if you went to work and you were divided into groups by age?

It is arbitrary to sort people into classes by age and teach to them according to that standard. Not everyone follows a neat and tidy age appropriate timeline to learning and that doesn’t make them deficient in some way.

Now I’d like to bring up the subject of grades. The U.S. has an obsession with quantifying everything and finds it uneasy not to. After all, how else will you be able to tell if something is going right or wrong?!

In the name of efficiency, we give children grades of A through F, or percentages of 0%-100% on just about everything you could possibly conceive. The students who achieve closer to an A or 100% are rewarded and treated better by the authority figure than those who achieve closer to the other end of the spectrum. This affects both parties self-esteem.

Now imagine a system where we didn’t numerically quantify the success or failure of a child. How would we be able to tell their success or failure then?

We would have to rethink things into a form other than success or failure of a child. For example, if a child finishes a book, that is a success. In this instance, we no longer need to determine that the child failed because they read 4 pages instead of 6. We can use common sense to determine that a book was read independently and therefore, is a success. We would have to eliminate the concept of a child’s failure and come to grips with using human judgement with all its flaws.

 

THE SOLUTION:

So what do we do to have an educated populace of citizens besides compulsory schooling?

Children would learn the way they did before compulsory schooling: with an active role in their community and returning to spending precious time with their families.

What I mean by community in this sense, is not the same as a network. Networks are what we have currently have in place. Networks are shallow relationships based on what you can get from each other. Community means “a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.

For example, a single alternative (of many potential alternatives) to compulsory schooling could be the following loose “curriculum” of natural life experiences:

  • play
  • household responsibilities
  • personal interests and curiosity
  • internships and work experience
  • travel
  • books
  • elective classes
  • family
  • mentors
  • social interaction

Traditional schooling takes away time that would normally have been contributed to participating and building the community and family. This form of “unschooling” would allow children and young adults to get back to those roots and become whole individuals and society members moreso than if they were sitting in a classroom the majority of the day.

Best 12th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

12th grade

1. personal finance

Get a Financial Life: Personal Finance In Your Twenties and Thirties

Personal Finance Workbook For Dummies

2. home repair

New Fix-It-Yourself Manual: How to Repair, Clean, and Maintain Anything and Everything In and Around Your Home

3. car repair

Auto Repair For Dummies

4. credit

Repair Your Credit Like the Pros: How credit attorneys and certified consultants legally delete bad credit and restore your good name

5. finding a job

What Color Is Your Parachute? 2017: A Practical Manual for Job-Hunters and Career-Changers

6. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

7. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

8. business

Small Time Operator: How to Start Your Own Business, Keep Your Books, Pay Your Taxes, and Stay Out of Trouble (Small Time Operator: How to Start Your … Keep Yourbooks, Pay Your Taxes, & Stay Out…)

Start Your Own Business, Sixth Edition: The Only Startup Book You’ll Ever Need

The Business Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

9. accounting

The Accounting Game: Basic Accounting Fresh from the Lemonade Stand

Accounting Made Simple: Accounting Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Accounting Workbook For Dummies

10. career paths

Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type

11. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

12. teaching (education)

Teaching: Ultimate Teaching Techniques! – Teach Like A Champion, Grab Your Students’ Attention And Engagement, Supercharge Their Learning, and Transform … Creativity, Productivity, Self Confidence)

13. music (playing)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

piano stand

piano bench

pedal

14. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

15. fine arts (painting)

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 Pack – 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

16. applied arts (printmaking)

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – woodcarving tools

           StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – wood

           12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

           Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

17. design (user experience)

Don’t Make Me Think, Revisited: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability (3rd Edition) (Voices That Matter)

Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook

18. medicine

Medicine: The Definitive Illustrated History

19. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

19. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. history (world)

Timelines of History by DK

National Geographic Almanac of World History

History: From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

21. languages (english)

http://thegreatestbooks.org/

Linguistics For Dummies

The Literature Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

22. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

23. philosophy (ethics)

Philosophy 101: From Plato and Socrates to Ethics and Metaphysics, an Essential Primer on the History of Thought (Adams 101)

Philosophy & Ethics For Dummies 2 eBook Bundle: Philosophy For Dummies & Ethics For Dummies

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Best 11th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

11th grade

1. romantic relationships

How to Be an Adult in Relationships: The Five Keys to Mindful Loving

2. the healthcare system

The Health Care Handbook: A Clear and Concise Guide to the United States Health Care System

3. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

4. first aid

(I recommend getting certified by a professional)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

5. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

6. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

7. negotiation/debate

Thank You For Arguing, Revised and Updated Edition: What Aristotle, Lincoln, And Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion

8. accounting

The Accounting Game: Basic Accounting Fresh from the Lemonade Stand

Accounting Made Simple: Accounting Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Accounting Workbook For Dummies

9. career paths

Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type

10. teaching (education)

Teaching: Ultimate Teaching Techniques! – Teach Like A Champion, Grab Your Students’ Attention And Engagement, Supercharge Their Learning, and Transform … Creativity, Productivity, Self Confidence)

11. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

12. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

13. television (creation)

Create Your Own TV Series for the Internet

The Comedy Bible: From Stand-up to Sitcom–The Comedy Writer’s Ultimate “How To” Guide

14. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

15. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

16. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, erasers, sketchpad and pencil sharpener

          33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

          Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Crayola Pip-Squeaks Skinnies Washable Markers, 64 count, Great for Home or School, Perfect Art Tools

     – pens

           Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

17. applied arts (mixed media)

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – glue

          Elmer’s All Purpose School Glue Sticks, Clear, Washable, 4 Pack, 0.24-ounce sticks

          Elmer’s School Glue, Washable, 4 Ounces

          Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

          Cbetter Mini Hot Melt Glue Gun with 25pcs Glue Sticks High Temperature Melting Glue Gun Kit Flexible Trigger for DIY Small Craft Projects&Sealing and Quick Repairs(20-watt, Blue)

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

18. design (graphic)

Creative Workshop: 80 Challenges to Sharpen Your Design Skills

The Non-Designer’s Design Book

19. earth science

Earth Science by Edward J. Tarbuck

20. space science

Space: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

National Geographic Backyard Guide to the Night Sky

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

21. politics (government)

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

The Everything American Government Book: From the Constitution to Present-Day Elections, All You Need to Understand Our Democratic System

22. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

23. history (scientific)

A Short History of Nearly Everything

The Story of Western Science: From the Writings of Aristotle to the Big Bang Theory

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

24. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

25. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

26. philosophy (western schools)

A History of Western Philosophy (Naxos Audiobooks Non-Fiction)

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

27. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Pre-Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Best 9th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

9th grade

1. personal finance

Get a Financial Life: Personal Finance In Your Twenties and Thirties

Personal Finance Workbook For Dummies

2. study skills

10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades (While Studying Less)

– materials

Blue Sky 2016-2017 Academic Year Weekly & Monthly Planner, Wire-O Binding, Charcoal Cover, 5″ x 8″ (18732)

3. social skills

Improve Your Social Skills by Daniel Wendler

4. romantic relationships

How to Be an Adult in Relationships: The Five Keys to Mindful Loving

5. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

6. first aid

(I recommend getting certified by a professional)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

7. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

8. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

9. negotiation/debate

Thank You For Arguing, Revised and Updated Edition: What Aristotle, Lincoln, And Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion

10. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

11. music (theory)

Alfred’s Basic Piano Library Flash Cards, Bk 2 & 3

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory, Bk 2

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory, Bk 1-3: Ear Training 2 CDs

Music Theory for Guitarists: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know But Were Afraid to Ask (Guitar Method)

12. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

13. television (creation)

Create Your Own TV Series for the Internet

The Comedy Bible: From Stand-up to Sitcom–The Comedy Writer’s Ultimate “How To” Guide

14. theater (playwriting)

The Dramatic Writer’s Companion: Tools to Develop Characters, Cause Scenes, and Build Stories (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing)

15. film (theory)

Cinematography: Theory and Practice: Image Making for Cinematographers and Directors

16. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery sculpting tools

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

17. design (product)

Product Design (Portfolio) by Alex Milton

18. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

19. biology

Biology for Dummies

Biology Workbook For Dummies

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. economics

The Economics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Economic Facts and Fallacies

21. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

22. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

23. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

24. philosophy (metaphysics)

Philosophy 101: From Plato and Socrates to Ethics and Metaphysics, an Essential Primer on the History of Thought (Adams 101)

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

25. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

26. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Algebra II Workbook For Dummies

Best 8th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

8th grade

1. cooking

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

2. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

3. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

carving wood

Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

6. music (composing)

Finale 2014 Music Notation Software – Academic Edition

The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Music Composition (Idiot’s Guides)

7. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

8. television (criticism)

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/lists/best-tv-shows-ever-top-819499

9. theater (acting)

Reverse Charades

The Acting Bible: The Complete Resource for Aspiring Actors

10. film (criticism)

The Great Movies IV  by Roger Ebert

The Movie Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

11. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

          Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 PACK – 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

12. applied arts (printmaking)

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – knife kit

           StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – woodcut

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

          Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

13. physics

Basic Physics: A Self-Teaching Guide by Karl F. Kuhn

Physics Workbook For Dummies

14. sociology

The Sociology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Sociology: A Brief Introduction by Richard T. Schaefer

15. history (economic)

A History of Economic Theory and Method by Robert B. Ekelund Jr.

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

16. languages (english)

http://thegreatestbooks.org/

The Literature Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Linguistics For Dummies

17. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

18. philosophy (political)

On Politics: A History of Political Thought: From Herodotus to the Present (2 Vol. Set) by Alan Ryan

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

19. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Geometry Workbook For Dummies

Best 7th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

7th grade

1. study skills

10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades (While Studying Less)

– materials

Blue Sky 2016-2017 Academic Year Weekly & Monthly Planner, Wire-O Binding, Charcoal Cover, 5″ x 8″ (18732)

2. social skills

Improve Your Social Skills by Daniel Wendler

3. survival skills

Outdoor Life: The Ultimate Survival Manual: 333 Skills that Will Get You Out Alive

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

5. first aid

(getting certified by a professional recommended)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

6. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

7. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

8. music (recording)

– audio recording software

Propellerhead Reason 7 (Music Recording & Production Studio)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

piano stand

pedal

– cable

USB Guitar Cable VAlinks USB Interface Male to 6.35mm 1/4″ Mono Male Electric Guitar Cable Studio Audio Cable Connector Cords Adapter for Instruments Recording Singing- 3m/10ft

– microphone

Floureon BM-800 Condenser Sound Studio Recording Broadcasting Microphone + Shock Mount Holder Blue

– headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M20x Professional Headphones

9. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

10. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, erasers, sketchpad, drawing pencils, and pencil sharpener

           33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

    – pastels

         Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Crayola Pip-Squeaks Skinnies Washable Markers, 64 count, Great For Home or School, Perfect Art Tools

     – pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

11. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

      – scissors

           Scotch Precision Ultra Edge Scissors, 8 Inch, 3-Pack (1458-3AMZ)

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – glue

          Elmer’s All Purpose School Glue Sticks, Clear, Washable, 4 Pack, 0.24-ounce sticks

          Elmer’s School Glue, Washable, 4 Ounces

          Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

          CCbetter Mini Hot Melt Glue Gun with 25pcs Glue Sticks High Temperature Melting Glue Gun Kit Flexible Trigger for DIY Small Craft Projects&Sealing and Quick Repairs(20-watt, Blue)

     – paper towels

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – sandpaper

     – spray bottle

     – magazines

12. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

13. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

14. history (modern)

History: Modern History in 50 Events: From the Industrial Revolution to the Present (World History, History Books, People History) (History in 50 Events Series Book 7)

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

15. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

16. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

17. philosophy (logic)

An Introduction to Philosophical Logic by Anthony C. Grayling

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

18. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Algebra I Workbook For Dummies

Best 6th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

6th grade

1. cooking

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

2. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

3. inventing

Kids Inventing! A Handbook for Young Inventors

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

carving wood

6. music (playing)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

7. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

8. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

9. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

10. fine arts (photography)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Photoshop CC + Lightroom) Prepaid Membership 12 Month (Download)

Photography Photo Portrait Studio 600W Day Light Umbrella Continuous Lighting Kit by LimoStudio LMS103

The Photographer’s Playbook: 307 Assignments and Ideas

Digital Photography Complete Course by DK

Digital Photography Workbook For Dummies

(use cell phone camera)

11. applied arts (architecture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Chief Architect Home Designer Essentials 2017

The LEGO Architect

LEGO Architecture White House (21006)

Archidoodle: The Architect’s Activity Book

– materials

     – eraser

          Paper Mate Pink Pearl Premium Erasers, Large, 3-Count

     – pencil sharpener

          Prismacolor Scholar Pencil Sharpener

     – graphite pencil

          Derwent Graphic Drawing Pencils, Medium, Metal Tin, 12 Count (34214)

     – fine line pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – brushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – scale rule

          Timely Expanded House Plan Template (32T)

     – set square

          325mm Hypotenuse Metric Professional Geometry Set Square Drawing Drafting Triangle with Grip

     – circle template

          Westcott LetterCraft Large and Small Circles Template (T-831)

12. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

13. earth science

Earth Science by Edward J. Tarbuck

14. space science

Space: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

National Geographic Backyard Guide to the Night Sky

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

15. politics (government)

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

The Everything American Government Book: From the Constitution to Present-Day Elections, All You Need to Understand Our Democratic System

16. history (natural)

Natural History (Smithsonian) by DK

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

17. languages (foreign)

– french

Living Language French, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My French Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– spanish

Living Language Spanish, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Spanish Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– japanese

Living Language Japanese, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Japanese Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

18. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

19. philosophy (history)

History of Philosophy: Overview of: Eastern Philosophy, Western Philosophy, and the Most Important Thinkers through the Ages (René Descartes, Kierkegaard, … Rousseau, Christian Philosophy Book 1)

A History of Philosophy Book Series (9 Books) by Frederick Copleston

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. mathematics

Basic Math and Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies

Best 5th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

5th grade

1. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

2. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

3. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

6. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

7. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

8. theater (history)

Living Theater: A History

9. film (animation)

HUE Animation Studio (Blue) for Windows PCs and Apple Mac OS X: complete stop motion animation kit with camera, software and book

11. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

12. chemistry

Thames & Kosmos CHEM C3000 (V 2.0)

Chemistry For Dummies

Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

13. the law

Law 101: Everything You Need to Know About American Law

Law For Dummies

The Crime Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

14. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

15. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

16. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

Best 4th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

4th grade

1. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

2. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

3. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

4. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

 200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

 carving wood

5. music (history)

Music by DK

6. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Womens Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

7. theater (playwriting)

The Dramatic Writer’s Companion: Tools to Develop Characters, Cause Scenes, and Build Stories (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing)

8. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

          Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 Pack- 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

9. applied arts (printmaking)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

– materials

     – woodcut

          StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – wood panels

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving and etching

           Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

           Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

10. biology

Biology for Dummies

Biology Workbook For Dummies

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

11. economics

The Economics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Economic Facts and Fallacies

12. languages (english)

http://time.com/100-best-young-adult-books/

Linguistics For Dummies

13. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

Best 3rd Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

3rd grade

1. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeautic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

2. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

3. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

4. music (theory)

Piano Cards: Beginner Level 1

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory: A Complete Self-Study Course for All Musicians (Book & 2 CDs)

Music Theory for Guitarists: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know But Were Afraid to Ask (Guitar Method)

5. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

6. theater (acting)

Reverse Charades

The Acting Bible: The Complete Resource for Aspiring Actors

7. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, charcoal, erasers, pencil sharpener, and sketchpad

          33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

          Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Magicdo 24Cols Watercolor Pen, Stamp Marker pen, Watercolor Marker pen with Art Seal, Non-Toxic& Washable Markers for Kids and Adults Coloring Book, Doodling, Drawing

     – pen

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

  – sketch book

     Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

8. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

      – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

9. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

10. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Brainbox All Around The World

National Geographic Kids World Atlas

11. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

12. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

Best 2nd Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

2nd grade

1. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

2. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

3. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

4. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. music (composing)

Finale 2014 Music Notation Software – Academic Edition

The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Music Composition (Idiot’s Guides)

6. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

7. fine arts (photography)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Photoshop CC + Lightroom) Prepaid Membership 12 Month (Download)

Photography Photo Portrait Studio 600W Day Light Umbrella Continuous Lighting Kit by LimoStudio LMS103

The Photographer’s Playbook: 307 Assignments and Ideas

Digital Photography Complete Course by DK

Digital Photograpy Workbook For Dummies

(use camera on phone)

8. applied arts (architecture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Chief Architect Home Designer Essentials 2017

The LEGO Architect

LEGO Architecture New York City 21028

Archidoodle: The Architect’s Activity Book

– materials

    – eraser

          Paper Mate Pink Pearl Premium Erasers, Large, 3-Count

     – pencil sharpener

          Prismacolor Scholar Pencil Sharpener

     – graphite pencil

          Derwent Graphic Drawing Pencils, Medium, Metal Tin, 12 Count (34214)

     – fine line pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – brushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – scale rule

          Timely Expanded House Plan Template (32T)

     – set square

          325mm Hypotenuse Metric Professional Geometry Set Square Drawing Drafting Triangle with Grip

     – circle template

          Westcott LetterCraft Large and Small Circles Template (T-831)

9. mathematics

Basic Math and Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies

Brain Quest Workbook, Grade 2

10. languages (foreign)

– french

Living Language French, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning 

My French Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– spanish

Living Language Spanish, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning 

My Spanish Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

11. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

Best 1st Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

1st Grade

1. manners

365 Manners Kids Should Know: Games, Activities, and Other Fun Ways to Help Children and Teens Learn Etiquette

2. gun safety

Don’t Play With Guns Coloring & Activity Book

3. hygiene

Germs Are Not for Sharing (Board Book) (Best Behavior Series)

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeautic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

5. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

6. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

7. music (recording)

– audio recording software

Propellerhead Reason 7 (Music Recording & Production Studio)

– percussion

Mendini by Cecilio 13 Inch 3-Piece Kids / Junior Drum Set with Adjustable Throne, Cymbal, Pedal & Drumsticks, Metallic Blue, MJDS-1-BL

– wind instruments

Set of 3 Music 1. Clarinet 2. Saxophone 3. Trumpet, Combo with over 10 Color Coded Teaching Songs

– stringed instruments

New 30″ Kids Black Electric Guitar With Amp & Much More Guitar Combo Accessory Kit

– electronic instruments

RockJam 561 Electronic 61 Key Digital Piano Keyboard SuperKit with Stand, Stool, Headphones, & Includes Piano Maestro Teaching App with 30 Songs

– cable

USB Guitar Cable VAlinks USB Interface Male to 6.35mm 1/4″ Mono Male Electric Guitar Cable Studio Audio Cable Connector Cords Adapter for Instruments Recording Singing- 3m/10ft

Hosa MID-320BK 5-Pin DIN to 5-Pin DIN MIDI Cable, 20 feet

– microphone

Floureon BM-800 Condenser Sound Studio Recording Broadcasting Microphone + Shock Mount Holder Blue

– headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M20x Professional Headphones

8. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

9. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

10. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

11. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

12. earth science

Janice VanCleave’s Earth Science for Every Kid: 101 Easy Experiments that Really Work

How the World Works: A Hands-On Guide to Our Amazing Planet

13. space science

The Magic School Bus: The Secrets of Space

Space! by DK

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

14. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

15. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

Best Kindergarten Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

Kindergarten

1. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

2. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

3. music (playing)

     – percussion

          VTech KidiBeats Kids Drum Set

     – wind instruments

          Set of 3 Music 1. Clarinet 2. Saxophone 3. Trumpet, Combo with over 10 Color Coded Teaching Songs

     – stringed instruments

          New 30″ Kids Black Electric Guitar With Amp & Much More Guitar Combo Accessory Kit

     – electronic instruments

          RockJam 561 Electronic 61 Key Digital Piano Keyboard SuperKit with Stand, Stool, Headphones, & Includes Piano Maestro Teaching App with 30 Songs

4. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

     – clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

 

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

5. puppetry

ALEX Toys Little Hands Paper Bag Puppets

6. film (animation)

HUE Animation Studio (Blue) for Windows PCs and Apple Mac OS X: complete stop motion animation kit with camera, software and book

7. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

    – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

      – canvas

           Artlicious – CANVAS PANELS 12 PACK – 8″X10″ SUPER VALUE PACK Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

8. applied arts (printmaking)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

– materials

    – woodcarving tool chisels

          StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

  – woodcut

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

          Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

9. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall planting & spring blooms

Garlic bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb for Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

10. chemistry

The Magic School Bus – Chemistry Lab

Chemistry For Dummies

Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

11. languages (english)

http://time.com/100-best-childrens-books/

Linguistics For Dummies

12. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

Best Preschool Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

Preschool

1. manners

Blunders Preschool Manner Mats

2. gun safety

Don’t Play With Guns Coloring & Activity Book

3. hygiene

Germs Are Not for Sharing (Board Book) (Best Behavior Series)

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

5. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

6. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

 

7. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

How to Draw Cool Stuff: A Drawing Guide for Teachers and Students

– materials

     – graphite

     – charcoal

           33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

           Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – marker

          Magicdo 24Cols Watercolor Pen, Stamp Marker pen, Watercolor Marker pen with Art Seal, Non-Toxic& Washable Markers for Kids and Adults Coloring Book, Doodling, Drawing

     – pen

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

8. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

9. biology

Biology for Dummies and Workbook

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

10. linguistics

Linguistics For Dummies

Introducing Linguistics: A Graphic Guide

11. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

12th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

12th grade
 
1. personal finance
– financial position
– adequate protection
– tax planning
– investment and accumulation goals
– retirement planning
– estate planning
 
2. home repair
– worn
– damaged
– maintenance
– good operations
– remediation of environmental problems
3. car repair
– oil change
– fluids
– tires
– safety procedures
4. credit
– credit cards
– credit management
– credit scoring
– interest rates
– bank credit
– commerce
– consumer credit
– investment credit
– real estate
 
5. finding a job
– resume
– networking
– referrals
– job boards and career websites
– job fairs
– company websites
– cold calling
– recruitment agencies
– temping and internships
– interview
6. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
7. sports
 
8. business
– forms of ownership
– classifications
– management
– organization and government regulation
9. accounting
– financial
– management
– auditing
– information systems
– tax
10. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
11. leadership/management
– planning
– organizing
– coordinating
– commanding
– controlling
– interpersonal
– informational
– decision
12. teaching
 (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
13. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
14. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
15. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
16. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
17. design (user experience)
– elements
  – visual design
  – information architecture
  – interaction design
  – usability
  – human-computer interactiono
– general process
– UX deliverables
– designers\
  – graphic designers
  – visual designers
  – interaction
– testing
– benefits
 
18. medicine
– clinical practice
– institutions
  – delivery
– branches
  – basic sciences
  – specialties
  – interdisciplinary fields
– education and legal controls
– medical ethics
– traditional medicine
 
19. mathematics
– quantity
– structure
– space
– change
– foundations and philosophy
– logic
– discrete
– applied
20. psychology
– schools of thought
  – biological
  – behavioral
  – cognitive
  – social
  – existential-humanist
– themes
  – personality
  – unconscious mind
  – motivation
  – development
  – genes and environment
– applications
  – mental testing
  – mental health care
  – education
  – work
  – military and intelligence
  – health, well-being, and social change
– research methods
  – controlled experiments
  – statistical inference
  – technological assays
  – computer simulation
  – animal studies
  – qualitative and descriptive research
– contemporary issues
– ethics
  – humans
  – other animals
21. history (world)
– prehistory
  – early humans
  – rise of civilization
– ancient history
  – timeline
  – cradles of civilization
  – axial age
  – regional empires
  – declines, falls, and resurgence
– post-classical
  – western asia and north africa
  – europe
  – sub-saharan africa
  – south asia
  – east asia
  – central asia
  – southeast asia
  – oceania
  – the americas
– modern
  – early modern period
  – late modern period
  – contemporary history
22. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
23. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific
24. philosophy (ethics)
– meta-ethics
– normative ethics
  – virtue ethics
  – hedonism
  – state consequentialism
  – consequentialism/teleology
  – deontology
  – pragmatic ethics
  – role ethics
  – anarchist ethics
  – postmodern ethics
– applied
  – specific questions
  – particular fields of application
    – bioethics
    – business
    – machine
    – military
    – political
    – public sector
    – publication
    – relational
– moral
  – evolutionary ethics
– descriptive

11th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

11th grade
 
1. romantic relationships
– relationship resources
– relationship restoration
– relationship maintenance
– evidence-based marriage education
2. the healthcare system
– statistics
  – nobel prize
– providers
– facilities
  – physicians
  – medical products, research and development
  – healthcare provider employment in the united states
– spending
– regulation and oversight
  – involved organizations and institutions
  – certificates of need for hospitals
  – licensing of providers
  – quality assurance
– system effectiveness
  – measures of effectiveness
  – compared to other countries
– efficiency
  – third party payment problem and consumer driven insurance
  – overall costs
  – equity
– drug efficacy and safety
  – impact of drug companies
– political issues
  – prescription drug prices
  – debate
– reform
3. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
4. first aid
– airway management
– cardiopulmonary resucitation
– emergency bleeding control
5. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
6. sports
 
7. negotiation/debate
– strategies
  – distributive negotiation
  – integrative negotiation
– elements of negotiation
  – adversary of partner
  – employing an advocate
  – perspective taking for integrative negotiation
  – negotiation styles
  – types of negotiators
  – bad faith negotiation
– emotion
  – affect effect
  – positive affect
  – negative affect
  – conditions of emotion affect
  – effect of partner’s emotions
  – problems with laboratory studies
– team negotiation
– barriers
– tactics
– nonverbal communication
 
8. accounting
– financial
– management
– auditing
– information systems
– tax
9. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
10. teaching (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
11. music (listening)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
12. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
13. television (creation)
 
14. theater (stage design)
 
15. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
16. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
17. applied arts (mixed media)
 
18. design (graphic)
– typography
– page layout
– printmaking
– tools
  – computers and the creative process
19. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
20. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
 
21. politics (government)
– elections
– corruption
– government
– philosophies
– governments of the world
– political issues
– politics by region
– political parties
22. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
23. history (scientific)
– early cultures
  – africa
  – ancient near east
  – greco-roman world
  – india
  – china
– science in the middle ages
  – islamic world
  – europe
– impact of science in europe
  – age of enlightenment
  – romanticism in science
– modern science
  – physics
  – chemistry
  – geology
  – astronomy
  – biology, medicine and genetics
  – ecology
  – political science
  – linguistics
  – economics
  – psychology
  – sociology
  – anthropology
  – emerging disciplines
– academic study
  – theories and sociology of the history of science
  – the plight of many scientific innovators
 
24. languages (linguistics)
– variation and universality
  – lexicon
  – discourse
  – dialect
  – structures
  – relativity
  – style
– approach
  – generative vs. functional theories of lanaguage
  – methodology
  – analysis
  – anthropology
  – sources
– areas of research
  – historical linguistics
  – sociolinguistics
  – developmental linguistics
  – neurolinguistics
– applied
– interdisciplinary fields
  – semiotics
  – language documentation
  – translation
  – biolinguistics
  – clinical
  – computational
  – evolutionary
  – forensic
 
25. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief
26. philosophy (western schools)
– ancient
– medieval
– modern
– contemporary approaches
– analytic
– continental
  – german idealism
  – phenomenology
  – existentialism
– pragmatism
  – thomism
  – marxism
– western philosophical subdisciplines
– philosophy contrasted with other disciplines
  – natural science
  – theology and religious studies
  – mathematics

10th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

10th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. The Bible
– development
– hebrew bible
  – torah
  – nevi’im
  – ketuvim
  – original languages
– septuagint
  – incorporations from theodotion
  – final form
– christian bibles
  – old testament
  – new testament
  – development of the christian canons
– divine inspiration
– versions and translations
– views
  – other religions
  – biblical studies
  – higher criticism
– archaeological and historical research
 
3. finding a job
– resume
– networking
– referrals
– job boards and career websites
– job fairs
– company websites
– cold calling
– recruitment agencies
– temping and internships
– interview
 
4. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
5. skepticism
– legal
– philosophical
– religious
– scientific
6. multicultural theology
– apologetics
– conceptions of god
– eschatology
– existence of god
– opposition to religion
– theism
– theologies
– seminaries
 
7. sports
 
8. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
 
9. teaching (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
 
10. music (history)
– eras of music
  – prehistoric
  – ancient music
  – biblical period
  – early music
– western art music
  – medieval
  – renaissance
  – baroque
  – classical era
  – romantic
  – 20th and 21st century
– classical music outside of europe
  – byzantium
  – asia
  – india
  – china
  – middle east
  – persia
11. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
12. television (criticism)
 
13. theater (history)
– classical and hellenistic greece
– roman
– sanskrit
– chinese
– post-classical in the west
– eastern traditions
14. film (animation)
– traditional
– stop motion
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
– mechanical
15. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
16. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
17. design (fashion)
– structure
– designing a garment
– types of fashion
  – haute couture
  – ready-to-wear
  – mass market
– income
– fashion education
– areas
– world fashion industry
  – american fashion design
  – belgian
  – british
  – canadian
  – french
  – german
  – italian
  – japanese
  – chinese
  – soviet
  – swiss
– terms
 
18. computer science
– theory of computation
– information and coding theory
– algorithms and data structures
– programming language theory
– formal methods
– artificial intelligence
– architecture and engineering
– performance analysis
– graphics and visualization
– security and cryptography
– computational science
– networks
– concurrent, parallel and distributed systems
– databases
– software engineering
 
19. chemistry
– matter
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – mole and amount of substance
– phase
– bonding
– energy
– reaction
– ions and salts
– acidity and basicity
– redox
– equilibrium
– chemical laws
20. the law
– the constitution
– criminal
– taxes
21. history (political)
– antiquity
– medieval islam
– medieval europe
– european renaissance
– european age of enlightenment
– industrialization and modern era
 
22. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
23. writing (journalism)

8th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

8th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. hygiene
hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
3. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
4. self-defense
 
5. sports
 
6. woodwork
 
7. music (composing)
– chord progression
– melody
– free playing
– computer methods
– structure
8. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
9. television (criticism)
 
10. theater (acting)
– classical acting
– stanislavski’s system
– method acting
– meisner technique
– practical aesthetics
11. film (criticism)
 
12. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
14. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
15. physics
– describing the nature, measuring and quantifying of bodies and their motion, dynamics etc.
  – newton’s laws of motion
  – mass, force, and weight
  – momentum and conservation of energy
  – gravity
  – energy, work, and their relationship
  – motion, position, and energy
  – different forms of energy
  – energy conservation, conversion, and transfer
  – energy source the transfer of energy from one source to work in another
– kinetic molecular theory
  – phases of matter and phase transitions
  – temperature and thermometers
  – energy and heat
  – heat flow: conduction, convection, and radiation
  – the three laws of thermodynamics
– waves and sounds
– electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism
– principles, sources, and properties of light
– basic quantities
  – acceleration
  – electric charge
  – energy
  – entropy
  – force
  – length
  – mass
  – matter
  – momentum
  – potential energy
  – space
  – temperature
  – time
  – velocity
 
16. sociology
– theoretical traditions
  – classical theory
  – 20th century social theory
– central theoretical problems
  – subjectivity and objectivity
  – structure and agency
  – synchrony and diachrony
– research methodology
  – sampling
  – methods
  – computational sociology
– scope and topics 
  – culture
  – criminality, deviance, law and punishment
  – communications and information technologies
  – economic sociology
  – education
  – environment
  – family, gender, and sexuality
  – health, illness, and the body
  – knowledge and science
  – leisure
  – peace, war, and conflict
  – political sociology
  – population and demography
  – public sociology
  – race and ethnic relations
  – religion
  – social change and development
  – social networks
  – social psychology
  – stratification, poverty and inequality
  – urban and rural sociology
  – violence
17. history (economic)
– ancient economic thought
– economic thought in the middle ages
– mercantilism and international trade
– pre-classical
– classical
– neoclassical
– alternative schools
– world wars, revolution and great depression
– austrian
– keynesianism
– chicago school
– games, evolution and growth
– post world war II and globalization
– post 2008 financial crisis
 
18. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
 
19. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief
20. philosophy (political)
– ancient traditions
  – china
  – greece
  – india
– medieval christianity
  – saint augustine
  – st. thomas aquinas
– islamic golden age
  – mutazilite vs. asharite
  – ibn khaldun
– medieval europe
– european rennaissance
  – niccolo machiavelli
– european enlightenment
  – john locke
– industrialization and the modern era
– contemporary

6th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

6th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. hygiene
hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
3. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
4. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
5. sports
 
6. woodwork
 
7. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
8. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
9. theater (stage design)

10. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
11. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
12. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
13. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
14. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
15. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
16. politics (government)
– elections
– corruption
– government
– philosophies
– governments of the world
– political issues
– politics by region
– political parties
 
17. history (natural)
– ancient times
– medieval
– birth of scientific biology
18. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
19. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific
20. philosophy (history)
– western
– middle eastern
– indian
– buddhist
– east asian
– african
– indigenous american

5th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

5th grade
 
1. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
2. self-defense
 
3. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
 
4. sports
 
5. leadership/management
– planning
– organizing
– coordinating
– commanding
– controlling
– interpersonal
– informational
– decision
6. music (listening)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
7. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
8. theater (history)
– classical and hellenistic greece
– roman
– sanskrit
– chinese
– post-classical in the west
– eastern traditions
 
9. film (animation)
– traditional
– stop motion
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
– mechanical
10. fine arts (sculpture)
– stone
– metal
– glass
– pottery
– wood carving
12. chemistry
– matter
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – amount of substance
– phase
– bonding
– energy
– reaction
– ions and salts
– acidity and basicity
– redox
– equilibrium
– chemical laws
 
13. the law
– the constitution
– criminal
– taxes
 
14. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
15. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)
 
16. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

4th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

4th grade
 
1. hygiene
 hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
2. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
3. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
4. sports
5. woodwork
6. music (history)
– eras of music
  – prehistoric
  – ancient music
  – biblical period
  – early music
– western art music
  – medieval
  – renaissance
  – baroque
  – classical era
  – romantic
  – 20th and 21st century
– classical music outside of europe
  – byzantium
  – asia
  – india
  – china
  – middle east
  – persia
 
7. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
8. theater (playwriting)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
– structure
– form
– genre
– narrator
– tense
9. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
10. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
11. biology
– cell theory
– evolution
– genetics
– homeostasis
– energy
– structural
– physiological
– research
– systematic
– kingdoms
– ecological and environmental
12. economics
– production
– distribution
– consumption of goods and services
13. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
14. writing (journalism)

3rd Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

1. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
 
2. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
 
3. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
4. sports
 
5. music (theory)
– pitch
– scales and modes
– consonance and dissonance
– rhythm
– melody
– chord
– harmony
– timbre
  – dynamics
  – articulation
– texture
– form
– expression
– notation
 
6. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
7. theater (acting)
– classical acting
– stanislavski’s system
– method acting
– meisner technique
– practical aesthetics
 
8. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
9. applied arts (mixed media)
 
10. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
11. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
 
12. languages (linguistics)
– lexicon
– discourse
– dialect
– structures
– relativity
– style
 
13. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific

2nd Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

2nd grade
 
1. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
2. self-defense
 
3. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
4. sports
 
5. music (composing)
– chord progression
– melody
– free playing
– computer methods
– structure
 
6. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
7. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
8. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
9. mathematics
– quantity
– structure
– space
– change
– foundations and philosophy
– logic
– discrete
– applied
11. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
 
12. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

1st Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

1st grade
 
1. manners
– hygiene
  – cover your mouth when sneezing
  – cover your mouth when yawning
– courtesy
  – say please and thank you
  – don’t interrupt
  – excuse me
  – ask permission
  – asking how are you?
  – knocking first
  – writing a thank you note
  – bad words
  – greet nicely
  – sharing
  – raising hands
  – no hitting
  – eat at the table
– cultural norms
  – being on time
  – privacy and personal space
  – being honest
  – waiting your turn
  – hand washing
– cultural differences (examples)
greetings in other cultures
  – bowing in japan instead of shaking hands
  – embracing in latin america instead of shaking hands
  – kissing cheeks in the mediterranean
please and excuse me
  – smiling instead in latin america
smiling
  – in asia not smiling is not rude
eye contact
  – respectful to avoid eye contact in korea
2. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
3. hygiene
– hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
4. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
5. sports
 
6. leadership/management
– planning
  – deciding what needs to happen in the future
  – plans of action
– organizing
– coordinating
  – creating structure so goals can be accomplished
– commanding
  – determine what needs to be done in a situation
  – getting people to do it
– controlling
  checking progress against plans
– interpersonal
  – coordination and interaction with others
– informational
  – handling, sharing, and analyzing information
7. music (recording)
 
8. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
 
9. theater (scenic design)
 
10. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
 
11. fine arts (sculpture)
– stone
– metal
– glass
– pottery
– wood carving
12. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
 
13. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
 
14. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)
 
15. writing (journalism)

Kindergarten Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

Kindergarten
1. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
 
2. sports
 
3. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
 
4. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
 
5. theater (puppetry)
 
6. film (animation)
– stop motion
  – clay
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
  – flipbook
  – sand
 
7. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
 
8. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
9. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
 
10. chemistry
– matter 
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – amount of substance
 
11. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
 
12. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific

 

 

Preschool Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.
Preschool
 
1. manners
hygiene
  – cover your mouth when sneezing
  – cover your mouth when yawning
– courtesy
  – say please and thank you
  – don’t interrupt
  – excuse me
  – ask permission
  – asking how are you?
  – knocking first
  – writing a thank you note
  – bad words
  – greet nicely
  – sharing
  – raising hands
  – no hitting
  – eat at the table
– cultural norms
  – being on time
  – privacy and personal space
  – being honest
  – waiting your turn
  – hand washing
– cultural differences (examples)
greetings in other cultures
  – bowing in japan instead of shaking hands
  – embracing in latin america instead of shaking hands
  – kissing cheeks in the mediterranean
please and excuse me
  – smiling instead in latin america
smiling
  – in asia not smiling is not rude
eye contact
  – respectful to avoid eye contact in korea
2. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
 
3. hygiene
– hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
4. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
5. sports
 
6. music (listening to different styles of music)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
 
7. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
 
8. applied arts (mixed media)
9. biology
– cell theory
– evolution
– genetics
– homeostasis
– energy
– structural
– physiological
– research
– systematic
– kingdoms
– ecological and environmental
 
10. languages (linguistics)
– phonetics
– phonology
– morphology
– syntax
– semantics
– pragmatics
– discourse analysis
– stylistics
– semiotics
 
11. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

Prison reform: Apparently it’s a bad idea to put everyone in jail?

The U.S. has a problem.

Um, everyone is in jail.

WorldIncarceration

Oops, we imprisoned everyone.

How did this happen? What caused it?

Well, let’s look at the historical data.

ImprisonmentRate

(Source)

More people have been incarcerated since 1980 than ever before in U.S. history, and if this policy worked, you would think we would have a lower homicide rate that correlates.

HomicideRate

(Source)

But it doesn’t correlate.

Here is an overlay of the two for better comparison.

PrisonOverlay

Despite the dramatic rise of incarceration rates since 1980, it was a whole decade later, not until 1990, that it took for homicide rates to go down.

I chose homicide rates instead of say, violent crime rates because it is a better indicator of crime than property theft or all criminal activity combined. People tend to report murder and there is better documentation of that particular crime than something like domestic violence or rape.

Who is in prison?

incarcerationdemographics

 

  • Black men make up only 13% of the US population, but constitute 40% of prisoners. (Source, Source)
  • In contrast, white men make up 64% of the US population, but make up 39% of the incarcerated population. (SourceSource)
  • Men make up 50% of the population and yet, they are 82% of prisoners. (Source)
  • 64% of jail inmates have a mental health problem (Source)

 

What crimes are being committed?

crimebyoffense

Overwhelmingly, violent crime is the #1 reason for imprisonment.

What can be done to reform prisons?

  1. Rehabilitate the prisoner
  2. Make sliding scale bail

1. Rehabilitate the prisoner

In a 20 year study on prisoner rehabilitation, evidence was shown that a program of “cognitive behavioral therapy,” reduced recidivism rates in prisoners. The findings are as follows:

  • Without treatment, 82% returned to prison
  • With treatment, 61% returned to prison

With treatment we see a drop of 21% in recidivism rates. (Source)

What is cognitive behavioral therapy?

Briefly, CBT is changing your unhelpful or dysfunctional thought patterns in order to reduce negative or unwanted actions or emotions. Healthy thought patterns are taught to the client, as well as effective emotional regulation skills. The idea is that when thoughts are changed, behaviors and emotions follow.

For example:

Rob has a problem with how to effectively manage his anger. His girlfriend made a comment he perceived as offensive, so he punched a hole in the wall of their home. Rob feels terrible about scaring his wife and damaging the house.

Rob sees his therapist who suggests they do a “behavioral experiment.” Next Rob gets angry, the therapist suggests he physically leave the room, and try to distract himself from thinking about what he is so angry about, until he feels calmer. Then, at his next session, he compares how the experiment went.

Next session, Rob comes in and he explains that he carried out the behavioral experiment when his wife upset him again. He explains that when he got angry, he left the room and played solitaire on the computer until he calmed down. Then he returned to his wife, and while he did raise his voice, he did not resort to violence this time.

The therapist asks him how the experimental behavior went compared to his status quo reaction to anger. He admits that it went much better in the experimental condition because he didn’t feel regret that he had gotten violent or scared his wife. The therapist asks if he would give the technique a try again next time. He agrees that he would be open to trying the experiment again in the future.

This is a very simplified example, but it provides an idea of what cognitive behavioral therapy might look like in a particular instance.

Rehabilitation is not without controversy though. Many people find it morally wrong to offer easy access to mental health care for prisoners, when non-prisoners don’t get the same benefit.

I have a few things to say about that.

For one, I think everyone should have easier access to mental healthcare, prisoner or not. That is a failing of government as well as our culture as whole. $23,000 is spent per prisoner on incarceration facilities, per year. Over the past 20 years, this spending has increased and outpaced spending on essential government services such as education and public assistance. (Source) It begs the question, if we spent the money being funneled into prisons on non-prisoner social services, would we see a decrease in crime rates?

We don’t have an answer to that because it hasn’t been done, but isn’t it worth trying something other than continuing the status quo?

2. Make sliding scale bail

Bail as it is currently being utilized discriminates against the impoverished.

For example:

James allegedly possessed cocaine and is in jail awaiting trial. His bail is set at $25,000. Luckily, James has his own paper business and has enough money to pay some of the bail, which makes him less of a credit risk to the bail bondsman that gets him out. He can also pay back the bond because he has a high enough income.

Chris is not so fortunate. He also allegedly possessed cocaine and is in jail awaiting trial. His bail is also set at $25,000. The problem is though, Chris works as a temporary laborer and only has $500 to his name. The bail bondsman is less likely to give him the full bond considering his employment is spotty, he doesn’t have very much up front cash, and he is a high credit risk. He’s also unsure if he will ever be able to pay back the $25,000 to the bondsman anyway. Chris has little choice and stays in jail until his trial begins.

People like Chris make up an overwhemingly large percentage of those imprisoned. In New York city alone, 31% of non-felony defendants stay in jail because they cannot post the $500 bail. (Source)

After getting out of jail, people like Chris are less likely to be able to find a job or keep the one they had. Employers don’t tend to want to hire people who have a criminal record. It also difficult to find housing because of the same reason. This increases the likelihood that the ex-prisoner, guilty or not, is going to end up homeless.

Another thought I couldn’t find much research on was, does going to prison make an otherwise functional citizen more likely to commit crime?

My intuition tells me that it does. Prisons are more likely to breed violence or abuse and I have a hard time believing a person is not negatively impacted by that. I imagine going to prison is a trauma and like most people who experience trauma, there are repercussions. I think people coming out of any abusive environment are at higher risk of becoming abusive themselves.

If people like Chris were given a reduced bail, according to their income level, he would be less likely to be at risk for committing criminal acts because he would spend less time in the highly mentally disruptive prison environment.

Bail was originally supposed to exist to reduce the likelihood that someone was a flight risk by exchanging their money for their freedom before their trial. Presently, it allows people with money who are dangerous to be set free and those with less money who are not dangerous to be imprisoned, as well as, potentially creating more prisoners out of those who are jailed and poor, but innocent of their crime.

Greatest Movies of All Time

This is a compilation of 10 lists of the Greatest Movies of All Time. The scale is from 1-7, the ones that are tied are not in any particular order.

the godfather 7
citizen kane 7
on the waterfront 7
chinatown 7
singin in the rain 7
annie hall 7
taxi driver 7
schindler’s list 6
raging bull 6
casablanca 6
one flew over the cuckoo’s nest 6
gone with the wind 6
the wizard of oz 6
sunset blvd. 6
some like it hot 6
dr. strangelove 6
apocalpse now 6
to kill a mockingbird 6
jaws 6
pulp fiction 6
north by northwest 6
all about eve 6
lawrence of arabia 5
psycho 5
the godfather part II 5
vertigo 5
star wars 5
2001: a space odyssey 5
the bridge on the river kwai 5
it’s a wonderful life 5
the best years of our lives 5
a clockwork orange 5
goodfellas 5
the deer hunter 5
city lights 5
it happened one night 5
fargo 5
the grapes of wrath 5
the maltese falcon 5
the shawshank redemption 4
forrest gump 4
E.T. the extra terrestrial 4
amadeus 4
ben-hur 4
gladiator 4
raiders of the lost ark 4
rocky 4
a streetcar named desire 4
the philadelphia story 4
butch cassidy and the sundance kid 4
the apartment 4
high noon 4
mr. smith goes to washington 4
the graduate 4
double indemnity 4
rear window 4
the third man 4
modern times 4
the gold rush 4
blade runner 4
west side story 3
the lord or the rings: the return of the king 3
saving private ryan 3
unforgiven 3
an american in paris 3
braveheart 3
platoon 3
bonnie and clyde 3
midnight cowboy 3
close encounters of the third kind 3
network 3
the african queen 3
star wars: episode V – the empire strikes back 3
seven samurai 3
the silence of the lambs 3
the shining 3
american beauty 3
the general 3
rebecca 3
the wages of fear 3
the princess bride 3
roman holiday 3
the night of the hunter 3
toy story 3
the sound of music 2
doctor zhivago 2
the good, the bad, and the ugly 2
the treasure of the sierra madre 2
the pianist 2
all quiet on the western front 2
the french connection 2
tootsie 2
shane 2
the green mile 2
the great dictator 2
wuthering heights 2
rebel without a cause 2
frankenstein 2
yankee doodle dandy 2
the dark knight 2
fight club 2
the lord of the rings: the fellowship of the ring 2
inception 2
the matrix 2
se7en 2
the usual suspects 2
life is beautiful 2
leon: the professional 2
once upon a time in the west 2
back to the future 2
whiplash 2
memento 2
the lion king 2
alien 2
the lives of others 2
cinema paradiso 2
paths of glory 2
wall-e 2
aliens 2
M 2
reservoir dogs 2
amelie 2
requiem for a dream 2
toy story 3 2
eternal sunshine for the spotless mind 2
the sting 2
toy story 2
monty python and the holy grail 2
l.a. confidential 2
rashomon 2
a separation 2
metropolis 2
the treasure of the sierra madre 2
good will hunting 2
die hard 2
pan’s labyrinth 2
the big lebowski 2
cool hand luke 2
how to train your dragon 2
finding nemo 2
there will be blood 2
the 400 blows 2
persona 2
the grand budapest hotel 2
touch of evil 2
jurassic park 2
8 1/2 2
the terminator 2
groundhog day 2
la haine 2
the battle of algiers 2
dog day afternoon 2
beauty and the beast 2
king kong 2
snow white and the seven dwarves 2
stagecoach 2
the wild bunch 2
the searchers 2
who’s afraid of virginia woolf? 2
from here to eternity 1
titanic 1
my fair lady 1
patton 1
a place in the sun 1
giant 1
nashville 1
american graffiti 1
mutiny on the bounty 1
the lord of the rings: the two towers 1
star wars: episode IV – a new hope 1
city of god 1
spirited away 1
american history x 1
interstellar 1
the intouchables 1
rear window 1
terminator 2: judgement day 1
the departed 1
the prestige 1
django unchained 1
grave of the fireflies 1
the dark knight rises 1
princess mononoke 1
oldboy 1
once upon a time in america 1
das boot 1
star wars: episode VI – return of the jedi 1
witness for the prosecution 1
full metal jacket 1
bicycle thieves 1
snatch 1
inglourious basterds 1
the kid 1
for a few dollars more 1
indiana jones and the last crusade 1
scarface 1
yojimbo 1
batman begins 1
the hunt 1
3 idiots 1
the third man 1
inside out 1
the great escape 1
heat 1
my neighbor totoro 1
ran 1
ikiru 1
the secret in their eyes 1
the seventh seal 1
sunrise 1
lock, stock and two smoking barrels 1
howl’s moving castle 1
the message
wild strawberries 1
casino 1
the elephant man 1
warrior 1
the wolf of wall street 1
zootopia 1
judgment at nuremberg 1
a beautiful mind 1
v for vendetta 1
gran torino 1
incendies 1
trainspotting 1
dial m for murder 1
the sixth sense 1
the thing 1
no country for old men 1
into the wild 1
mary and max 1
gone girl 1
kill bill: vol. 1 1
rush 1
life of brian 1
hotel rwanda 1
stand by me 1
shutter island 1
in the name of the father 1
12 years a slave 1
amores perros 1
million dollar baby 1
hachi: a dog’s tale 1
nausicaa of the valley of the wind 1
stalker 1
gandhi 1
diabolique 1
the bourne ultimatum 1
before sunrise 1
donnie darko 1
the truman show 1
memories of murder 1
monsters, inc. 1
twelve monkeys 1
harry potter and the deathly hallows: part 2 1
sin city 1
strangers on a train 1
internal affairs 1
barry lyndon 1
prisoners 1
ip man 1
fanny and alexander 1
the imitation game 1
the avengers 1
guardians of the galaxy 1
the help 1
the king’s speech 1
a fistful of dollars 1
castle in the sky 1
in the mood for love 1
lagaan: once upon a time in india 1
the birth of a nation 1
fantasia 1
the manchurian candidate 1
duck soup 1
easy rider 1
bringing up baby 1
the hustler 1
tokyo story 1
mean streets 1
a star is born 1
the celebration 1
rosemary’s baby 1
boyhood 1
the adventures of robin hood 1
the bride of frankenstein 1
mary poppins 1
notorious 1
the big sleep 1

Greatest TV Shows of All Time

This is a compilation of 10 lists of Greatest TV Shows of All Time. The scale is from 1-9, the ones that are tied are not in any particular order.

The Sopranos 9

The Simpsons 9
Breaking Bad 8
The Wire 8
Battlestar Galactica 8
Friends 7
X-Files 7
Seinfeld 7
Mad Men 7
Lost 7
Arrested Development 7
Twin Peaks 7
The Shield 7
24 7
Game of Thrones 6
The West Wing 6
South Park 6
Star Trek 6
I Love Lucy 5
Buffy the Vampire Slayer 5
Six Feet Under 5
Curb Your Enthusiasm 5
Monty Python’s Flying Circus 5
Deadwood 5
Saturday Night Live 4
Sex and the City 4
MASH 4
The Twilight Zone 4
The Office 4
All in the Family 4
The Dick Van Dyke Show 4
Freaks and Geeks 4
Star Trek: The Next Generation 4
Doctor Who 4
Homicide: Life on the Street 4
The Office (UK) 4
Modern Family 3
The Mary Tyler Moore Show 3
House of Cards 3
Cheers 3
ER 3
Sherlock (U.K.) 3
Dexter 3
Friday Night Lights 3
Fraiser 3
The Carol Burnett Show 3
Downton Abbey 3
The Good Wife 3
Roseanne 3
Hill Street Blues 3
House 3
Taxi 3
Firefly 3
Alfred Hitchcock Presents 3
Sesame Street 3
The Bob Newhart Show 3
Fawlty Towers 3
The Daily Show 3
The Larry Sanders Show 3
My So-Called Life 3
Band of Brothers 3
Louie 3
The Walking Dead 2
Orange Is the New Black 2
Parks and Recreation 2
The Muppet Show 2
The Golden Girls 2
True Detective 2
Law & Order 2
Scrubs 2
Everybody Loves Raymond 2
The Cosby Show 2
Gunsmoke 2
The Honeymooners 2
I, Claudius 2
Late Night with David Letterman 2
The Prisoner 2
Roots 2
St. Elsewhere 2
Your Show of Shows 2

Futurama 2
Blackadder 2
Homeland 2
Red Dwarf 2
Justified 2
Fargo 2
Hannibal 2
Boardwalk Empire 2
30 Rock 1
Will & Grace 1
The Big Bang Theory 1
Homeland 1
Veep 1
Orphan Black 1
Gilmore Girls 1
The Wonder Years 1
Murphy Brown 1
Family Guy 1
Moonlighting 1
Entourage 1
Married… With Children 1
It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia 1
The Rockford Files 1
Family Ties 1
American Idol 1
Dallas 1
Mystery Science Theater 3000 1
The Odd Couple 1
The Oprah Winfrey Show 1
Playhouse 90 1
60 Minutes 1
Soap 1
Survivor 1
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson 1
The Andy Griffith Show 1
Columbo 1
NYPD Blue 1
Barney Miller 1
The Peep Show 1
The Colbert Report 1
Lonesome Dove 1
Frozen Planet 1
Only Fools and Horses… 1
Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 1
Top Gear 1
Archer 1
Daredevil 1
Black Mirror 1
Spaced 1
The People v. O.J. Simpson: American Crime Story 1
Silicon Valley 1
Broad City 1
Southland 1
Extras 1
Prison Break 1
Broadchurch 1
Life on Mars 1

List of tax breaks in America

I went through the IRS website and collected this list of things you can write off on your taxes for fun. This is to help poor people only. Rich people move along. We need your money really, really bad.

ALSO I AM NOT A CPA THIS IS NOT LEGAL ADVICE STOP IT!!!!

Moving

 – cost of storage
 – plane ticket
 – moving company
 – baggage fees
Business
 – baggage fees
 – utility bills
 – rent
 – if you get a new laptop
 – percentage of the time you use your laptop and the cost of it
 – office supplies
 – 50% of meals dining out with clients
 – 50% of meals dining out alone when traveling for business
 – entertainment with clients
 – cell phone but only business calls in your phone bill
 – percentage of the size of your house you use for business
 – if you worked fewer hours than last year
 – your website costs
 – tech supplies
 – interest on your credit card
 – interest on loans (car loan, percentage I use it for business like dropping you off at the airport, taking clients out, etc.)
 – accountant fees
 – bank fees
 – education expenses
 – training expenses
 – subscriptions to trade or professional publications
 – tax preparer fees
 – state income tax
 – ordinary expenses related to your trade
 – any transportation (train, bus, airplane, lyft, uber)
 – any lodging (hotels)
 – tips
 – business start up costs
 – research
 – advertising
 – books
 – licenses
 – computer software (even open source)
 – online services
 – subcontractors
 – shipping
 – postage
 – airplane but not the first day of travel
 – conventions
 – consulting fees
 – internet hosting and services
Investment
 – when you reinvest in any kind of fund (dividends)
 – interest
 – pension plan contributions
Other
 – charitable contributions
 – sales tax (electronics, furniture, engagement ring/wedding bands, a wedding, car)
 – advice and fees

Why are teachers paid so little when athletes make so much?

Teachers see us, sometimes, more than our own parents when we’re growing up. Day in, and day out, they get up at the crack of dawn, and begin arranging their classrooms, preparing for standardized testing, and writing lesson plans. This also includes administrative and teachers’ meetings. Then they teach for 8 hours or more. This is the part we see. But their work doesn’t end there. In the afternoons, some teachers work to help with extracurricular activities. Then stay late into the evening working too, returning emails, doing administrative tasks, and dealing with sometimes difficult children, and sometimes even more difficult parents. And their nights at home and weekends are consumed with grading papers, and preparing for the next day’s lesson.

I’ve never met a teacher who wasn’t completely overworked.

So why do we pay teachers so poorly, but athletes make so much?

Well, let’s dive into some data.

How much do teachers really make compared to athletes?

TeacherSalary

Teachers make a median salary of (except special education) of $51,640. All occupations in the US economy make a median income of $36,200. But what does “all occupations” mean? Does that include part time workers or only full time workers? I couldn’t find that information anywhere, but I assume it means part time as well as full time because when I looked up the median income in the US, meaning, (how much the largest amount of people are making), working full time median income in the US is $51,939. (Source)

How can that be? If this were the case, teachers would be making pretty close to the US median. Well, they are. Myth busted. In the US, that’s a solid middle class salary. BUT the BLS statistics don’t include real numbers of hours worked versus actual salary received.

Maybe we can find the answer if we look to the actual number of hours teachers put into the job per week.

In a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation survey, teachers were polled on the number of hours they work daily. The average was 10 hours and 40 minutes a day. That’s 53 hours a week. If that’s the case, that means teachers’ real wages are $18.74/hour or, approximately $39,000/year. Because teachers are only paid for the times they are at school, not hourly, the salary appears higher than it actually is. The number of hours worked lowers the salary.

Some might say this measure is cheating the system. I actually find it to be more accurate. If you work more hours for the same salary, it makes sense to me that that should be included data in what your real salary is.

Job growth for teachers is approximately 6%. The median amount of job growth across all occupations in the country is 6.5%. This means that the job growth is just keeping up with the growing population. (Source)

And now we have our second answer, possibly the bigger answer.

Supply and demand. There are more teachers in the economy than are needed in the workforce. Sorry, but this is what the data says.

SupplyDemandLabor

(Source)

How does that work? 

Using the graph above for reference, allow me to use an example. Say I’m a receptionist. In this make believe economy, there are 215 available labor hours for receptionists in the economy needed by employers. Some employers are willing to pay a little more for better workers, some employers are willing to pay a little less, maybe they can only afford that, or maybe they think that’s what receptionists should be paid and they don’t really care about attracting the best workers, they just want the job done. After a while, an equilibrium will be reached. The average wage settles around $15/hour because that’s as little as receptionists are willing to work for, and employers are willing to pay. If employers offered $14/hour, I wouldn’t go work for them when I know other employers are going to pay $15/hour. That $14/hour employer has less of a good labor pool to choose from. This employer has a labor shortage. But say there’s an employer willing to pay $16/hour. There are more applications coming in for that job, and that employer gets to have his pick of the litter. This employer has a labor surplus.

The average, the standard for receptionists, settles to $15/hour per 215 billion labor hours available. This equilibrium, in this perfect, theoretical economy, means all the employers who want receptionists have them, and all the people wanting to be receptionists have jobs. The job growth keeps up with the population and economic growth.

On a macro level, if we generalize this to teachers, if teachers were overpaid, there would be more demand to become a teacher and less jobs to go around for the number of people who want to be teachers. This would cause the wage to go down for teachers until it reaches the equilibrium. Schools could pay their teachers less, the more teachers are knocking down their doors to becoming teachers.

The opposite would be a labor shortage. If there were too many seats available to become teachers, and not enough teachers applying or going to school to become teachers, schools would raise their offered salaries. This is because it causes a greater likelihood that people will apply to become teachers or go to school to become teachers, knowing there’s more money in it. Wouldn’t you rather take a job that paid more than a job that paid less?

I do have some good news, though. I have a hypothesis that teachers will get paid more in the future. I predict a teacher shortage as more and more baby boomers retire. This is because the majority of teachers, 39.4% have worked over 15 years, on average. This, combined with fertility rates stabilizing in the US, will most likely create a lot of open seats as far as opportunities for teachers looking to enter the workforce, causing the wage to go up in order to attract more workers.

The baby boomers retiring is going to change the population in the US that are contributing to social security, taking social security, and the availability of jobs. Especially in 2025, when the height of the baby boom will reach the age of 65. In 2010, we saw our first spike in the number of retirees, who turned 65 that year since the first spike in population during WWII.

USFertility

(Source)

What about athletes? Why do they make so much more than teachers?

Well, they actually don’t. In fact, they make less.

AthletesPay

Compare this with the median salary a teacher makes of $51,640. It is about $6,000 less than teachers make. Another busted myth.

However, athletes see the same job growth rate as teachers, 6%. (Source) Also, only 1 in 3,000 high school athletes make it into the professional industry.

What about star athletes?

This combined with the physical demands of the job, cause the highest paid workers, major league professionals to be paid higher. They have a unique, highly specialized skills that allows them to be more in demand, and higher paid as a result.

Careers are also cut short, the average athlete only being in commission for a few years before injury takes them out of the industry, or retirement.

The number of jobs in athletics was only 13,700 versus 1,517,400 for teachers.

Another reason teachers are paid more than athletes on average, is because being an athlete doesn’t require a degree at all, while teachers require at least a bachelor’s degree in order to get a job in teaching.

Cool general information.

Fastest growing occupations

FastestGrowingJobs

(Source)

Fastest declining jobs

DecliningJobs

Highest paid occupations

HighestPaidOccupations

Lowest paid occupations

LowestPaid

If you notice, the lowest paid jobs require the least education, and the highest paid occupations require much more education and have the most highly specialized work.

Top paid occupations

  1. Physicians
  2. Surgeons
  3. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons
  4. Internists
  5. Obstetricians and gynecologists

Lowest paid occupations

  1. Food preparation and serving workers
  2. Shampooers
  3. Cooks in fast food
  4. Dishwashers
  5. Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and bartender helpers

Should the physicians make less than food preparation and serving workers? Both are certainly hard work. But this is more of a moral question than a scientific one.

The best treatment for mental health distress we have to date

A word on the DSM and it’s credibility: It is my opinion, as someone actually at a university who is studying mental health care, is that there is scientific evidence being incorporated more and more into the DSM. But, diagnosis in general is considered by many, past and present day, in the mental health industry as possibly unnecessary, and possibly even damaging.

For example, regardless of if you have schizophrenia or not, regardless of if it’s mostly genetic, the treatment that is most effective doesn’t drastically change. Cognitive behavioral therapy has the most research behind it, and has now been shown to be more effective than medication for a long, exhaustive list of disorders.

Here is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a simple, easy to understand visual. Although it includes a vast array of techniques, this is a good 101.

CBTgraphic

(Source)

Basically, boiled down for time, everything affects everything. An event happens > followed by thoughts > followed by emotions, behavior, and physical reactions. So the thinking is, you can’t control the situation, but you can alter your thoughts. And thinking alternative, evidence based thoughts, actually tends to make people healthier. This reduces the negative emotions, behaviors, and physical reactions that result from the event and the thoughts.

CBT is solution focused and action oriented. Instead of looking for unconscious meaning behind behaviors and diagnosis, Behaviorism (part of CBT) thinks of something for example, depression, as a connection between a feared stimulus, an avoidance response. This results in a conditioned fear. Cognitive therapists think conscious thoughts influence behavior. The Cognitive and Behaviorist approach were combined to create what we now call Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. (Source)

What are some CBT techniques?

Some coping skills that are taught in CBT are challenging or debating patterns and beliefs, and replacing them with healthier patterns and beliefs.

For example, some unhealthy thoughts might be overgeneralizing, looking for evidence of the negative only, minimizing positives, and catastrophizing. Coming up with more realistic explanations or cognitions decreases emotions distress and self-defeating behavior. (Source)

Other techniques are distraction, imagery, motivational self-talk, relaxation, minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts, slow exposure to anxiety-provoking events, and goal setting.

This causes cognitive restructuring. The brain has neuroplasticity and can change. CBT actually modifies the neural circuits involved in regulation of negative emotions and fear extinction. It is able to change dysfunctions of the nervous system. This was discovered using neuroimaging techniques on neurobiological changes related to CBT before and after treatment. (Source)

These are some of the condition CBT has shown to be effective for:

  1. mood
  2. anxiety
  3. personality
  4. eating
  5. addiction
  6. dependence
  7. tics
  8. psychotic disorders
  9. schizophrenia
  10. fibromyalgia
(Lambert MJ, Bergin AE, Garfield SL (2004). “Introduction and Historical Overview”. In Lambert MJ. Bergin and Garfield’s Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3–15)

CBT in the short term is equivalent in effectiveness as medication. Long term, it is superior to medication. In a meta-analysis (comparison of many studies), after 16 weeks of treatment, 58.3% of patients felt relief from depression, versus 57.5% for the antidepressant. Later, medication patients were switched to placebo over the course of 12 months. The CBT group discontinued therapy except for 3 “booster sessions” over the course of the same 12 months. After 1 year, 76% of patients on the placebo relapsed into depression, while only 31% of CBT clients relapsed into depression. (Hollon SD et al, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(4):417–422)

What causes autism and what is the most effective treatment?

First of all, how does autism manifest?

Behavioral: inappropriate social interaction, poor eye contact, compulsive behavior, impulsivity, repetitive movements, self-harm, or persistent repetition of words or actions
Developmental: learning disability or speech delay in a child
Cognitive: intense interest in a limited number of things or problem paying attention
Psychological: unaware of others’ emotions or depression
Also common: anxiety, change in voice, sensitivity to sound, or tic

Autism rates have been going up since we first started diagnosing it as autism.

AutismPrevalence

Why is this?

Initially, we want to say it’s because something is causing it to grow in number. Which might be true, might not be true, there is still research being done on the topic. But something that is interesting to note is diagnosis has changed since 1975.

What is the DSM and who writes it?

The DSM was originally created from collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, as well as a United States Army manual.

However, it is controversial.

The National Institute of Mental Health criticizes the manual as being unscientific and subjective. They state that the DSM has a lack of reliability because unlike physical symptoms such as heart disease or AIDS, the measures are on a consensus of clinical symptoms and not any objective laboratory measure. “In the rest of medicine, this would be equivalent to creating diagnostic systems based on the nature of chest pain or the quality of fever.

More and more, psychologists are finding the “biopsychosocial model” to be a more accurate representation of mental distress. The idea is that there are more than just a hand full of superficial criterion that make up mental health. It used to be that biology was considered the biggest factor at play, but these days, with all of the newest research coming out, we are finding that it’s more complex than that, and many, many factors contribute to it.

Here are some examples

BioPsychoSocial

(Source)

The DSM, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which is published by the American Psychological Association, is the Bible to the medical community. It is used to diagnose mental disorders.

And it’s changed over time.

DSM-I (1952) Autism-like symptoms were first classified as, “childhood schizophrenic“.

DSM-II (1968) The diagnostic criteria for childhood schizophrenic became broadened to include, “autistic, atypical, and withdrawn behavior.”

DSM-III (1980) “Infantile autism” was now included. Only 6 characteristics were listed and all must have been present in order to receive the diagnosis. “These changes in the field yielded a rapid increase in the number of individuals being diagnosed with autism” (Factor, Freeman, & Kardash, 1989)

DSM-IV (1994) Subtypes were added to the autism diagnosis. It grew from 6 to 16 symptoms and only 6 were needed for diagnosis. Now “qualitative impairment of social interaction” was included. It also included repetitive behavior, an impairment in communication. Onset must have been prior to age 3 though.

Here are other symptoms that were listed:

  1. lack of social or emotional reciprocity
  2. stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic lanaguage
  3. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

DSM-5 (2013) Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified, which were previously considered as part of the autism spectrum, were removed.

Now, in order for diagnosis, a person must show all symptoms of social interaction and communication impairment, and additionally, 2 signs of repetitive behavior.

Asperger’s Syndrome has also been added under the umbrella of the autism spectrum.

So this is at least part of the responsibility for why incidence of autism have gone up. The diagnostic criteria has changed to become more broad. It’s not clear in the research if autism prevalence is also going up besides diagnostic criteria changing.

A word on the DSM and it’s credibility: It is my opinion, as someone actually at a university, who is studying mental health care, there is scientific evidence being incorporated more and more into the DSM. But, diagnosis in general is considered by many, past and present day, in the mental health industry as possibly unnecessary, and possibly even damaging.

For example, regardless of if you have autism or asperger’s, regardless of it being genetic, the treatment that is most effective doesn’t drastically change. Applied Behavioral Analysis has been shown to be more most effective, and the sooner the treatment is received, the better.

The most effective treatment for autism: Applied Behavioral Analysis

Specifically the Lovaas model, is a type of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) created by a psychology professor at UCLA. It incolved breaking down skills to their basic components, rewarding positive performance with praise and reinforcers, and then generalizing skills in a natural setting. The results are gaining language, academic, and basic living skills, while some children can even fully recover!

Applied behavioral analysis includes this model as well as data collection and replacement behavior strategies in order to understand and change behavior.

The evidence for effectiveness

EffectivenessOfABA

As you can see in the graph above, Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention has been shown to be superior to the control group of children who did not receive the treatment. In 47% of children receiving the treatment for an average of 40 hours a week, they were placed in regular classroom and considered, “indistinguishable” from their peers in follow-up studies.

The unfortunate part of this highly effective treatment is that the estimated cost for 40 hours of treatment a week is about $4,000 a month, with an average yearly cost of $40,000. However, many, many healthcare providers providing a sliding scale payment system based on the income of the family coming in for services.

Now. The biggest question we all have. What causes autism?

Just like the biopsychosocial model, there is not one cause of autism.

  1. It seems to be mostly genetic. It tends to run in families, or the families have related disabilities. It is not a single gene that contributes, and scientists and researchers are currently looking for irregular segments of genetic code. Genetics is currently considered the most significant cause of autism spectrum disorders. Studies of identical twins have shown heritability to be 90%. However, most cases of ASD have no recent evidence of family history

GenetisADS

(Source)

2. Brain shape and structure. Brain scans have shown a different shape and structure of the brain than neurotypical children.

3. Certain medical conditions such as fragile X syndrome (found in 20% of boys with autism), tuberus sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrom, and phenylketonuria.

4. Some ingested harmful substances during pregnancy.

5. De novo copy number variation (CNV) is when deletions and duplication occurs in DNA. This gene has been shown to contribute to 5-10% of cases of ASD.

6. Coding protein mutations are observed in approximately 20% of individuals with autism.

7. Age of the father, because sperm and eggs tend to mutate and wear down as they age. Chromosomal abnormalities also increase with age. ASD children of men over 40 years or older were 5.75 times more likely to have ASD after controlling for year of birth, socioeconomic status, and maternal age. Maternal age was not found to be associated with ASD, but is associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

Egg abnormalities increase with age 

EggAbnormalities

(Source)

MenBirthDefects

(Source)

8. Prenatal causes: in a meta-analysis of 40 studies, it has been connected that autism is also contributed to pregnancy such as diabetes, bleeding, psychiatric drugs, and stress.

9. Out of all the non-genetic factors for infectious processes, prenatal viral infection seems to be the principal cause of autism. Exposure to rubella or cytomegalovirus are viruses that activate the mother’s immune response and greatly increases the risk for autism, as well as schizophrenia. If this happens earlier in pregnancy, the chances increase.

10. Fetal testosterone levels in amniotic fluid have exhibited in several reports to be a contributor. This may also explain why boys are more likely to develop ASD than girls. One hypothesis is that it moves brain development closer to ability to see patterns, analyze complex systems, and diminishes communication and empathy. These behaviors are shown in individuals with autism.

11. Lead blood levels are significantly higher in autistic children than neurotypical children, some think this is what leads autistic children to develop pica, eating things such as chalk, glue, or dirt. However, it is not known for sure.

Things that do not cause autism

  1. Vaccines. Study after study after study has not proven a single connection between vaccines and autism. One or two particular studies showed a correlation but they were debunked, and the people who made the studies had their medical licenses taken away for fraud. Most children are diagnosed with autism around the same age that vaccines are introduced, leading parents to believe the vaccine is the cause of ASD. There is no sound evidence of this.
  2. Mother’s age is not correlated with autism.
  3. Ultrasounds
  4. Other things that do not cause autism: gastrointestinal (even though autistic children are more likely to have GI symptoms than atypical children) or immune system abnormalities, “vaccine overload”, allergies, exposure of children to drugs, mercury, dental fillings, infection, certain foods, or heavy metals. (Source, Source)
  5. Mothers not being affectionate with their children. (Bettelheim B. The Empty Fortress: Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self. Free Press; 1967.)

.

What causes birth rates to go down in developing countries?

Nobody knows every detail, and the research out there is limited on what has caused fertility rates to go down in developing countries. There are some educated guesses though.

1. As incomes have risen over time, birth rates have been declining. Child labor has gone down as well.

GDPDeveloping

Historic_world_GDP_per_capita

FertilityRatesWorld

ChildLabor

Why is this?

One possibility is what we saw in the industrial revolution in Western countries. As incomes rose, more and more children weren’t needed to work in sweatshops, and instead, families had the luxury to send their children to school instead. Not only did that keep children out of the workforce, but it allowed their children to have increased incomes for their own future because of their newly acquired education.

SchoolCompletion

2. People who live in urban areas tend to have lower birth rates than those in rural areas. Another reason is that populations in rural areas need their children to work in order to survive, and more children provides more income or labor.

UrbanFertility

3. Increased education rates are correlated with lower birth rates. I think this is correlated because not only are women busy getting and education instead of getting married and having babies, but with their higher education, it increases the likelihood of increased income, because their education provides better paying jobs.

I keep seeing again and again that poverty is related to so many different factors. It seems like if we eliminate poverty, we eliminate a lot of social problems as well.

Enrollment

EducationBirthRates

4. In areas with lower infant mortality rates, we see lower fertility rates. This is because mothers don’t need to have more children to get their desired number of children, because the children were dying as infants.

ChildMortality

5. Religion. In majority Muslim countries, there tend to be lower birth rates.

MuslimFertility

6. Average age of marriage influences birth rates around the world.

MarriageAgeFertility

7. Contraceptive use around the world is one possible factor but I couldn’t find sound research showing more contraceptive use over time. So we cannot assume this. Also, here’s a look at what methods people are using around the world, as well as, why people choose to not use contraceptives.

ContraceptiveWorldUse

ContraceptiveUse

NoUseReasons

Is the world population growing and are we doomed?

Here’s the graph we’re used to seeing:

WorldPopLogJESUS CHRIST WE’RE ALL DOOMED! THE WORLD’S RESOURCES CAN’T SUPPORT THAT MANY PEOPLE!

This one shows our historical population since 1750 and future projected population

WorldPopulationGrowth

Wait a minute. 

This graph shows a DECLINE in population growth AND a decreased projection of population growth.

What even is this.

And here’s another one:

WorldGrowthDecline

Again with the population decline data and projected population decline.

What.

Well, here comes the problem with data.

You might remember a post I made a while back, extolling the virtues of graphs zoomed way out to show as much historical data as possible, to get the big picture.

Well, in this instance, we seem to have zoomed out a little too far and missed the trees from the forest!

Here’s the first graph again:

WorldPopLog

It’s zoomed so far out, we can’t tell if the population is declining even a small amount after a while.

Notice the second and third graphs though, and they’re zoomed quite a bit in, and we can see that in fact, global populations are declining, and are even predicted by our very own UN to keep declining. It seems we reached peak population growth around 1963.

WorldPopulationGrowth

WorldGrowthDecline

UN world population 1950

1950

UN world population present

Present

UN world population projection 2100

2100

Now, let’s not say there are enough resources to go around even with the population decline. I’ll look that up in another post. But we can breathe a small sigh of relief that overpopulation doesn’t seem to be the doom and gloom catastrophe we’ve been brainwashed into believing.

Lastly, I want to leave you with cool facts I found:

  1. There are an estimate 100 billion humans who have ever lived. Right now we have 7 billion. Right now we are experiencing 7% of the world’s population that has ever lived.
  2. Asia accounts for 60% of the world population. Oceania is the smallest with 0.5%. (Source)
  3. There was once a bottleneck of human populations possibly down to 1,000-10,000 people, at around 70,000 BC, due to a volcanic winter that killed off massive amounts of plants. We could have gone extinct! Also, what that means is human genetic differences are not millions of years old, but only 70,000 years old. Crazy!
  4. Genetic analysis has lead to evidence than there was another population bottleneck 1.2 million years ago when the population dwindled down to 26,000. This has lead some researchers to believe humans have experienced several population bottlenecks over human history.
  5. When Europeans made contact with indigenous people in the Americas, 90% of their populations were killed by European endemics such as influenza, smallpox, and measles. This is because Europeans developed an immunity to these diseases that the first nations did not have.
  6. 75% of children didn’t make it to 5 years old who were born in London, in 1730. In 1810, it dropped to 33%.
  7. 40% of those who have ever lived did not survive beyond their first birthday.
  8. “life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history” (Source)

Biggest pollutants in the world

One thing I wonder, that I might be dead before I ever learn, is if the disappearance of oil will reduce or undo what damage we have already done to the world environmentally.

Biggest pollutants in the world

  1. Pesticides
  2. Lead-acid car batteries
  3. Industry and vehicles
  4. Open sewers
  5. Industrial waste (mining, lead, copper, zinc)
  6. Chromium (for stainless steel and tanning hides)
  7. Groundwater (from pesticides and mining waste)
  8. Mercury

(Source)

Unfortunately, most of these pollutants are found in poverty-stricken developing countries.

How well do environmental regulations work in improving the environment?

Since the 1970’s, more and more regulations and been places on air quality. This has resulted in a 2.6% declines in pollution levels, also known as total factor productivity levels.

The regulations on ozone depletion, while having “large negative effects on productivity,” thought sulfur dioxide emitters have reduced in number.

Carbon monoxide regulations have increased pollution, especially among refineries.

The total decline in pollution due to these regulations is estimated at 4.8%, and has reduced plant profits by about 8.8%.

While it doesn’t seem very effective, is it better to place the environmental regulations on businesses, even if it reduces the pollution by so little?

I think so. Even the small reduction in environmental pollution and the large loss in profits, I think it is the moral and ethical decision that should transcend cost, in this instance.

 

The peer reviewed journal Science just came out with a study showing exactly how we can eliminate poverty

OR How to eliminate poverty without forced taxation (which hasn’t eliminated it anyway).

Here’s a cool fact: we now have evidence for the best way to reduce poverty in the world.

The journal Science has done a rigorous meta-analysis of different types of charities and concluded that the scientific evidence is statistically significant and we can eliminate poverty without forced taxation. Here is the pdf without the whole needing to login thing: (Source) Also, here’s a simpler article explaining the study in case you’re not interested in the jargon: (Source)

Cash, livestock, and training.

That’s it. 3 things.

Now let’s delve into what the heck that means.

1. Cash

People in 6 different countries were each given a cash grant of $150. That’s it, $150. 2 years later, households doing the program now had a total of $202, or the equivalent in purchasing power of $500.

How did they do that?

2. Livestock

The subjects were given a choice between sheep, goats, chicken, cattle, etc. A market analyst would sometimes help them make the decision as to which livestock to choose. Which leads me to the training part.

3. Training

The training provided about livestock included: how to manage a business with their livestock, including feeding, how to rear them, vaccines, and treatment of diseases.

Training also included: health education in nutrition, hygiene, clean water, psychosocial counseling, prenatal health, HIV prevention and medicine; traditional and financial education such as investment and savings; emotional support; and staff supervision for running their business.

What doesn’t work

The study found that microloans don’t increase quality of life or incomes significantly, because the people getting the loans cannot afford to pay them back. Especially at the very high interest rates, microcredit lending charities have to charge to stay open. These programs usually take 18 years to break even. (Source)

Just donated livestock alone was not enough to lift people out of poverty alone.

Just cash while a short term solution, it did not help long term.

Services alone was not efficient enough as well.

Cost-benefit analysis

Most charities do not pass the cost-benefit analysis test. Most charities are costly to run and require high amounts of fundraising money to operate. Very often, it costs more to operate than the benefit the charity gives to others.

What am I supposed to do? How could someone like me help with extreme poverty in the world?

I did an exhaustive search of the best charities that do the cash, livestock, and training programs. The best rated one I found that had the best benefits was easily FXB International.

And here is why I like them so much:

  1. They only help the poorest of poor families in the world.
  2. Their model was developed with input by Harvard University experts.
  3. Their program is based on eliminating the five drivers of poverty: nutrition, health, education, housing, and income.
  4. They’ve already lifted 83,500 people out of poverty; the size of small city.
  5. They have a proven track record that 86% of the people they help STAY out of poverty 4 years later.
  6. They’ve been around for 27 years.
  7. They have great transparency for where their money goes.
  8. Only 12% of the money goes to overhead. That means for every $1 you donate, .88 cents goes to the actual person you’re helping.
  9. It only costs $140 per year to help lift one person out of poverty, for a 3 year program.

So, if you have $140 lying around that you weren’t going to spend in a better place. Here is their donation page: https://fxb.org/donate/

Maximum political, social and economic freedom

It is my opinion that the maximum freedom economically, politically, and socially, given to all people, regardless of who they are, helps the maximum number of people, out of every system I’ve ever researched, and has the most scientific evidence to back it up.

Quality of life is not higher in countries with more social and economic controls on its people. In fact, the opposite is true.

The Human Development Index is the best quality of life measurement we have. It takes into account life expectancy, education, and income standard of living, among many other factors.

Here are the top 5 highest quality of life countries in the world:

  1. Norway 2. Australia 3. Switzerland 4. Denmark 5. Netherlands

(The U.S. is #8, in case you were curious)

Here are the bottom 5 lowest quality of life countries in the world:

  1. Niger 2. Central African Republic 3. Eritrea 4. Chad 5. Burundi

Then there’s an index of countries based on political and civil freedom such as, freedom of speech, religious, individual economic choice, association, assembly, freedom from violence and crimes, movement, LGBT rights, women’s rights, as well as, human trafficking, sexual violence, female genital mutilation, homicide, freedom of movement, and adoption by homosexuals. (Source)

By lowest 5 on the above quality of life scale, on a scale of 1-7, 1 being best, 7 being worst:

1. Niger: freedom rating: 3.5 civil liberties: 4 political rights: 3

2. Central African Republic: freedom rating: 7 civil liberties: 7 political rights: 7

3. Eritrea: freedom rating: 7 civil liberties: 7 political rights: 7

4. Chad: freedom rating: 6.5 civil liberties: 6 political rights: 7

5. Burundi: freedom rating: 5.5 civil liberties: 5 political rights: 6

Now let’s look at our top quality of life countries and compare their freedom ratings from the same index we just used.

  1. Norway: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1
  2. Australia: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1
  3. Switzerland: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1
  4. Denmark: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1
  5. Netherlands: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1

And here’s the U.S. in comparison:

United States: freedom rating: 1 civil liberties: 1 political rights: 1

The more freedom people have, the higher the quality of life.

What about economic freedom? Do people with more economic freedom have a higher quality of life?

Let’s do this thing again with an economic freedom index.

Here is the index’s definition of economic freedom: Freedom to: “work, produce, consume, invest in any way they please. Government allows: labor, capital, and good to move freely, refrains from coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and maintain liberty itself.” (Source)

Let’s start with the highest quality of life countries (scale is from 1-100, 1 being the least free, 100 being the most free economically):

  1. Norway: 70.8
  2. Australia: 80.3 (5th highest in the world)
  3. Switzerland: 81.0 (4th highest in the world)
  4. Denmark: 75.3
  5. Netherlands: 74.6

And here’s the U.S. for fun:

United States: 75.4 (#11 on most economically free)

Now let’s see the countries with the lowest quality of life:

  1. Niger: 54.6 (#129 out of 178 countries)
  2. Central African Republic: 45.2 (#168)
  3. Eritrea: 42.7 (#173)
  4. Chad: 46.3 (#164)
  5. Burundi: 53.9 (#133)

The most economically free country was Hong Kong, the least economically free was North Korea.

(Source)

So there we have it. The most socially, politically, and economically free countries have the highest quality of life, and the least socially, politically, and economically free countries have the lowest quality of life. That is a big reason I believe allowing the maximum amount of freedom, given to the people, increases quality of life.

What would happen if we raised the minimum wage to $100/hour?

What if we raised the minimum wage to $25/hour? Why not $100/hr? What would happen then?

Let’s use an example of a business owner who runs a diner.

1. It would become cheaper to have the owner wash the dishes rather than hire a dishwasher. (Unemployment rises)

2. To compensate the current employees, the owner would have to raise the price of his meals. (Inflation rises)

3. Customers would stop going to the restaurant because the prices are too high. Especially those who aren’t receiving the minimum wage (unemployed, students, retired people). (Purchasing power declines)

4. It becomes cheaper to buy machines to handle the labor than human beings, and the owner begins letting people go, and replacing them with machine labor. (Human labor declines)

5. Foreign products start to look more attractive to consumers. If you can get a similar product, say frozen pie instead of fresh pie, for $5, instead of fresh pie for $50, you’ll probably buy the foreign frozen pie that is cheaper because it does not have the $100 minimum wage. (Trade deficit, imports increase)

6. Maybe the owner decides to start hiring illegal immigrants, not document workers and instead pay them in cash, or not report income to the IRS at tax time. (Increase in black market economy)

7. The owner cannot afford to pay his best workers more than his lowest workers any longer and they end up making similar wages, if not the same. This leads to a loss of the higher productivity workers as they try to find higher paying work or they begin to slack off at work because they are getting paid the same regardless of how hard they work. (Brain drain increases, low morale)

 

 

 

The minimum wage doesn’t do shit to reduce inequality and lift people out of poverty.

Paying people a minimum wage causes prices to rise, as employers have to pay their employees more. Not every business person, in fact only .3% of them, could afford to not raise their prices, and take a profit cut, when the minimum wage is raised. 99.7% of businesses in the U.S. are small, employing 500 people or less. That’s why prices go up. They have to. Not because they’re greedy, evil capitalists.

The minimum wage also increases unemployment. Many employers have to lay people off because they don’t make enough to pay them the higher wage. Also, they are less likely to hire because they can’t afford to hire new people at the higher wage.

UnemploymentMinimumWage

(Source)

That’s because of labor supply and demand

LaborSupplyDemand

Raising the minimum wage is just to make politicians look good. Inflation has eaten away at the lowest wages over time the most anyway due to government policies inflating the currency. So it pretty much grows so slowly, the economy has already grown enough that employers are already paying minimum wage or higher.

MinWageAdjustedInflation

(Source)

If raising the minimum wage actually worked, why do they have to keep raising it all the time? It’s because prices begin to match the minimum wage, and inflation devalues the wage.

 

Foreign aid just goes to more war

Foreign aid gets entangled with politics. Foreign aid also includes weapons to unstable governments with a lack of security.

The vast majority of foreign aid goes to Afghanistan and Israel, by far. Even though the poorest countries in the the world, the ones that need it most, receive some of the least aid, if any at all.

Countries that receive the most military and economic assistance foreign aid.  (Source)

  1. Afghanistan $7.2 billion 2. Israel $3.1 billion 3. Jordan $1.3 billion 4. Pakistan $980 million 5. Kenya $891 million

 

Top 5 poorest countries median income per capita PPP. (Source)

  1. Liberia $118 2. Burundi $129 3. Mali $165 4. Burkina Faso $168 5. Madagascar $205

 

Median income per capita PPP is a good measurement because of this: imagine a scatterplot of incomes. Some are going to be very high, some are going to be very low, and most are collected together somewhere in between. If we just took the average, it would be skewed by the very rich and the very poor, which wouldn’t be an accurate indicator of where most people actually are.

PPP is how much purchasing power they have. If the currency is highly inflated, that means incomes are actually lower than they look on paper.

Now let’s see how much foreign aid the poorest countries in the world get in comparison 

  1. Liberia $249 million 2. Burundi $37 million 3. Mali $169 million 4. Burkina Faso $62 million 5. Madagascar $58 million

Far lower.

Now, I get why we supply Afghanistan. We owe them for starting a war that killed 26,000 civilians, the size of a small town. Another number that needs to be taken into account though, is that 75% of the civilian deaths have been at the hands of the taliban. There has been several invitations for the taliban to participate in peace talks with the president of Afghanistan but the taliban has refused, making their own demands that the occupation is ended, blacklists barring them from entering and leaving countries, and “innocent prisoners freed.”

But Israel? The country has the 4th highest life expectancy for men, 7th highest military expenditures, and 6th highest civil war and unrest.

Liberia, on the other hand has: the 3rd largest unemployment rate in the world, 5th highest number of children out of primary school, 6th highest battle related deaths, and 7th longest standard workweek.

So if we’re going to give foreign aid, which I don’t think we should, we should at least give it to places that need it, and not just places we can fund more wars.

Historical economies

Incomes have risen per capita globally, since 500 B.C.

WorldGDPPerCapita500BC

(Source)

What happened in 1000 A.D. that caused it to go up a little? 

I don’t entirely know. What I do know the Islamic World was in its Golden Age, Europe was in the Middle Ages, and Rome was the most powerful state in the world. Maybe that had something to do with it.

What happened in 1300 A.D. that caused it to dip and then go back up?

Again, I don’t know completely, but these are the things that I do know happened around that time: the Mongol Empire, the High Middle Ages, the black plague, and the end of serfdom and the beginning of capitalism. So probably the black plague, which killed 30%-50% of the population.

What happened in 1900 A.D. that caused it to go up so drastically?

Industrialization!

Here’s a look at different estimates of the human population 100,000 years before the present.

HumanPopulation

What happened around 8,000 years ago? Civilization!

What changed at around 5,000 years ago? The first recorded revolutions AND imperialism!

Paleolithic era (estimated 3.3 million years ago-10,000 BC)

Humans were made up of small kin groups. The global population was between 1 and 15 million, in comparison to the 7 billion we have now. The average world GDP per capita was $158 per year (adjusted to 2013 dollars) and did not rise very much until the Industrial Revolution in 1760-ish.

Mesolithic era (estimated 20,000 BC-9,500 BC)

This was the end of the last glacial period. There was slow domestication of plants and animals, as well as small settled communities.

Neolithic era (estimated 10,200 BC-2,000 BC)

Trade and exchange began among neighboring tribes because tribes specialized in different things, and traded what they were most efficient at. The first money was probably cattle. In fact, I think the word money comes from the word for cattle. The first commodity money existed, so for example shell jewelry in the form of strung beads. For distribution and organization of scarce resources, humans relied on tradition, community cooperation, and/or top-down command.

Early money, money cowry:

MoneyCowrie

Antiquity or Bronze and Iron ages (3,300 BC-800 AD)

City states developed at this time. Sumer, modern day Southern Iraq, developed a market economy and their money was shekels, a certain weight measure of barley. They also had the first written financial laws such as interest rates, fines as punishment for a crime, inheritance, taxes, and division of land.

Temples were the first creditors, in Sumer. They charged interest and rent, as well as, doing business with debt and making profit. This was probably the first legal profit-seeking trade. A temple!

GDP per capita (PPP) globally since 1 AD-2015 AD

In 1 AD, the highest GDP per capita (PPP) in 1990 dollars, was Italy with $809 per person in the population annually. By 1,000 AD, it was Italy again but with less, $450 per person in the population annually.

Strangely enough, in 1 AD, the poorest countries were the Scandinavian countries with $400 per person in the population annually and it stayed like that until 1500 AD. It’s strange because now, Scandinavia is around #15 on the list of GDP per capita income as of 2015, with about $47,000. To put it in perspective, the U.S. is #11, at $55,000. Compare that with the wealthiest population in 1 AD, Italy, making $850 as your annual income.

Classical era (476 AD-1453 AD)

India and China made up half the size of the world economy. Commerce began going long distances and nations began to trade with other nations. Denominations of gold and silver coins were first introduced in Lydia, modern day Turkey. The first economists began to write their thoughts on things such as scarcity of resources.

The first gold coins, the Lydian Lion

LydianLionCoin

The Middle Ages (400 AD-1400 AD)

In the Middle Ages, there was an increase in population and trade. The silk road began trade between Europe, Central Asia, and China. Italy began the first modern accounting and finance systems. The first banknotes were used in China in 800 AD.

Early Modern era (1500 AD-1800 AD)

The Early Modern era saw the beginning of mercantilism, nationalism and international trade. It was also the end of feudalism. Europeans came to the Americas and traded between the two continents, as well as with Asia. The economic and political thought of the time was to use military to secure and protect markets and supply sources.

The Industrial Revolution (1760 AD-1840 AD)

Energy was discovered and produced in mass amounts. Right there at the tail end is the utilization of hydraulic fracking, otherwise, it peaked in 1970.

OilProduction

This grew the population and GDP per capita into that famous hockey stick shape.

WorldPopulation

WorldGDPPerCapita500BC

The twentieth century (1900 AD-2000 AD)

The highest growth occurred in the 1960s during post-war reconstruction. Another contributor to the rapid growth was going from national trade to international trade. Shipping containers made it cheaper to transport good internationally.

 

 

Why I fucking love talking about inflation, deflation, banking, the Great Depression and GOLD

Did you see this shit?

1280px-US_Historical_Inflation_Ancient

(Source)

I love old graphs. The farther back they go, the better. That way, you can get the big picture perspective on a subject. The problem with a lot of graphs is people think if they see a big line go up on a graph over the course of 5 years, that means something really, really bad happened or is going to happen. The truth is, 5 years is usually not enough data to make a generalization.

If a broker claimed that, if I invested with them, I would get a return of 150% because they had made that over the course of 5 years, I would tell them to fuck off and ask what they made in the previous 50 years. 5 years doesn’t tell you shit about an investment.

As you can see in the chart, historically, deflation and inflation were, most of the time, balancing each other out. But sometimes it’s not.

Why is that?

A lot of the time, it’s because of war and other forms of government influence. For example, in the chart, you can see around when WWII started and ended there was inflation, followed by a ton of deflation. Inflation and deflation work like weights on an old scale. If the market was a conscious brain, it would always be striving for balance, or as economists call it, equilibrium.

What goes up, must come down.

If you have a monopoly on the currency, though, then you can control it… at least most of the time. Most governments do this with some form of a central bank. Several small, island nations don’t have central banks though. (Source)

Equilibrium is a beautiful economic concept that makes me think of birds flying in formation without needing to talk to each other, or order in chaos, or even just human nature.

Equilibrium is the balance between the forces of supply and demand. It’s the point in a chart where the price is equal to the quantity.

Here’s a hot pic:

economics5

But along with market equilibrium AND human nature, comes the exceptions and the outside forces that can effect it.

Like, an entity, such as a government, that has a legal monopoly on currency. (Source) For example, the Federal Reserve in the U.S., instituted in 1913. They can set incentives to cause banks to lower or raise interest rates and they are the only ones allowed to print/inflate/deflate the currency. Which has been paying the bills for a long time. It has also been paying for the rapid rate American imperialism around the world.

And I think people might like it that way.

Having a national bank that is both private and public does have its advantages. For instance, people don’t know they’re being “taxed” in a way. The government doesn’t have to raise taxes, cut spending, or borrow from elsewhere to afford things. They can inflate the currency, by printing more of it into the marketplace, making it less valuable.

Here’s an example:

Say I have 3 Babe Ruth baseball cards and there’s only 100 in the world. It’s a rare baseball card, so it’s worth a lot of money. There were only 100 printed in the world. But say whoever prints baseball cards decides to print 1 trillion Babe Ruth baseball cards. Then what happens? Suddenly, my 3 Babe Ruth baseball cards are worth less money now, because all my friends on the block also have 3-5 Babe Ruth baseball cards. Now nobody is interested in buying a Babe Ruth baseball card, and there are so many of them, so people start using them as kindling for fires, because they’re more valuable as kindling.

That’s what happened, except with currency during the Weimar Republic (Germany). It would take wheel barrows full of paper currency to buy a loaf of bread, it was worth so little. So some found it more valuable to burn for warmth. That’s an extreme example of inflation: hyperinflation. But it hopefully shows an easier understanding of the concept.

money_to_burn

Historically, this happens a lot during wars. I’m pretty sure, because war is really, really expensive to fund. War isn’t the only reason, by far though.

WarAndInflation

War means inflation will go up, usually, because they go off the gold standard to “afford it.”

US_Unemployment_1890-2009

Always being at war makes unemployment a thing of the past!!!… Maybe?

What do gold and silver coins have to do with anything?

Everything.

Throughout history, since 600 B.C. to be more exact, (source) people have been using gold and silver on and off as currency. Off during times of war, when inflation is needed to pay the expenses of the war, and back on when the money becomes worthless because inflation has become too high.

The cool thing about commodities, like gold, is that the one that holds it value the most usually out competes the other monetary forms over time, historically. (Source) Hence, it’s historical popularity.

Lydian Lion coin. The world’s oldest coin, from what is now known as Turkey.

LydianLionCoin

This is an example of how it would work.

I would go to the bank with my paper $1 bill. Legally, I could go to my banker and say, I’d like to take out the equivalent of 1 paper dollar’s worth of silver. The banker would then weight out the silver, and give me the equivalent of 1 U.S. dollar piece of paper’s worth of silver, a certificate. I could then turn around and use it to pay for some groceries or something, or I could do the reverse.

I could go to the bank with my silver, and say, I’d like to get as much paper dollars as I can for this ounce of silver. Then, in return, the banker would give me a $1 paper bill, which I could then go buy groceries or something with.

And most people preferred to carry around the paper rather than a piece of metal. Just for convenience sake. Kind of like how plastic credit cards are easier than carrying around $1,000 in paper dollars these days.

Modern banking and the fractional reserve system

One of the issues I think will be seen as primitive in the future is how we have done banking historically.

I’m a fan of full-reserve banking, regardless of the doomsday naysayers who are akin to fortune tellers. And when I say full-reserve banking, I am meaning banks have to have an account with your name on it, and keep that money in your account on hand.

Wait a minute, banks don’t actually HAVE my money in my bank account?

No! It’s loaned out to other people! Complete strangers!

Which leads us to…

Modern banking, fractional reserve banking, which began with gold and silver roughly like this, in the 17th century:

Someone would go to the banker with something valuable they had, such as silver, which can be made into things or used as a store of value abstractly, like we do with paper currency. The banker would hold it for me and I would pay him to store it there, much like a storage unit.

That is full reserve banking.

But after 100 people did that, the banker would be left with storage unit after storage unit of valuable assets, just sitting there doing nothing.

So, he gives some of my silver to another person. The banker will charge that person interest, a borrowing fee, that builds and builds the longer he goes without paying it back, plus the fee/interest. The banker will get a cut AND I won’t have to pay the storage fee anymore.

That sounds like a deal.

The borrower goes out and buys materials to build a fishing net. Suddenly, he can catch way more fish to feed his family AND there’s fish left over to sell to others who don’t have nets or maybe aren’t very good fishermen but they’re good at something else they’d like to spend time doing. In exchange, people are giving the borrower money that not only pays back the amount borrowed, but ALSO the interest/banker’s fee, and ALSO more money (profit).

Everybody’s happy.

And that’s how it’s still done today, except with paper currency, not tied down by any value instrument at all. We call it fiat money and fractional reserve banking.

(Source: Money facts; 169 questions and answers on money – a supplement to A Primer on Money, with index, Subcommittee on Domestic Finance; U.S. Congress. House. Banking and Currency Committee.)

What the hell is fiat money?

Fiat money is a government mandate on what is declared legal tender. It is given a government determined value and is not tied to anything, such as a store of value, a commodity, anything. It is not representative money like gold certificates.

Here’s what’s weird though.

Fiat money has been used throughout history, and always fell out of favor and crashed due to inflation.

To put it in historical context, the world using fiat currency, as it does now, is not new, and it has only been since 1971 that we’ve been 100% using fiat money. Other countries had fiat currency around for sometimes as long as 100 years and sometimes only 20 years.

It has crashed before throughout history, and that doesn’t mean it can’t crash again. I think people get the idea that the government will take care of everything and smarter people are in charge so things like economic collapse won’t happen anymore.

Silly.

What goes wrong historically with banking

Now the banker is making the same deal with 70 of the 100 customers he has storing valuable assets in his storage (bank) where he is loaning out their assets in return for more money.

But I want my valuable asset (silver) back. Maybe I want to use it to make jewelry, maybe I want to give it to someone who desires it in exchange for something I desire like bananas or a massage. Anything.

No problem.

So the banker goes to get my silver. But he already lent it out to someone else who is using it and he’s waiting for them to pay it back.

Now the banker is faced with a dilemma.

He decides to borrow another customer’s silver to give to me while he waits for the silver/money to come back from the person who is borrowing my original silver.

What?

Things just got more complex.

What if 70 out of 100 people do that though? What if 70 out of his 100 customers wants their assets back?

Well, he just doesn’t have them.

And that’s the problem with fractional reserve banking. People eventually want their money/silver/valuable assets back at their convenience. They don’t want to wait on someone to pay back the banker who can then pay you back. And if 70 of the 100 people who are customers want their assets back all at once, the banker doesn’t have the assets to give it to them, and the bank goes bankrupt, has to close, and everyone has lost the assets AND money they put in.

That’s a run on the banks.

That’s what that looks like historically, that’s what it looked like during the Great Depression, and that’s what that looks like in modern day banking. BUT it’s a little different in modern banking and money.

The government requires banks to carry a certain, very small amount of deposits, only 4-6%. But we also have FDIC insurance, which is where the government guarantees that up to $250,000, you will be able to take your money out of your account, whenever you want, because they have the power to print limitless amounts of money, in case the bank doesn’t have it.

Regardless, throughout history, we keep doing it over, and over and over and the same thing happens: bank failures aka banks go bankrupt. There are long periods of time where they don’t go bankrupt, but eventually, they do.

BankFailures

That’s a financial fraud to me. It’s the same idea as Social Security and insurance. There’s no Social Security account with your name on it, holding all the money you’ve paid into it throughout your life. The money you are paying now goes to the people collecting Social Security NOW.

Insurance and social security requires a pool of more money coming in than is going out. A legal ponzi scheme, that if a private company does, they go to jail.

Which is why social security is about to become insolvent too, if something isn’t done to fix it, by someone much smarter than me.

SocialSecurity

If I run a bank and everyone is dropping off silver or gold, and more are dropping off assets than they are taking out, everyone looks like they’re getting richer. There’s more to lend and more profit can be made potentially and everyone is betting on more and more people to drop off their valuables, which the customer eventually plans to take out and retire on.

That’s what happened during the Great Depression.

Everyone who had invested their pennies or fortunes, depending on who you were, thought profits would go up forever, that the country was in a new age of progress, and so they invested more and more.

In 1913, the Federal Reserve Act instituted the Federal Reserve, and reduced the amount of gold backing the dollar had from 100% to 40%. This caused a fuckton of inflation.

Inflation made the economy look great. Everyone was getting credit and loans at unbelievable interest rates. Cities seemed to be built in a day. Everyone was getting jobs right off the boat, everyone saw their standard of living go up from where they had been before, and the stock market was booming. There seemed to be an endless supply of capital. Capital meaning something that increases the ability to make something. For example, a construction truck to build a house, or investment money from your uncle, or the stock market, or a credit card.

However, what goes up, must come down.

Eventually people wanted to collect and the money wasn’t there.

It started when Great Britain didn’t have the tax revenue to go to WWI, so they went off the gold standard.

Bold, underline, put. in. red. Blame the Brits!

There was a (compared to how we know it turned out later) “small” run on the British sterling, which caused Britain to put in exchange controls on their money that weakened the gold standard greatly, and caused a huge amount of inflation, because gold being tied to a currency stabilizes it so there’s not too much inflation.

UKInflation

Side note about how a gold standard works:

There is a limited amount of gold in the world, except what hasn’t been mined yet in the ocean, because the world doesn’t know how to mine for it yet. Because there’s a limited amount of gold, the price is relatively “fixed”. When tied with paper currency, we can, for example, say 1 piece of paper equals .5 ounce of gold, and we can keep it that way, because the price doesn’t fluctuate very much, without government intervention. But, that’s usually the way it goes.

Anyway, back to WWI and Great Britain and how them going off the gold standard started the Great Depression.

This worked like a domino effect on the American economy and then in the rest of the world later. I imagine because the history and economy of America and Britain are intertwined moreso than we were, at least at that time, with other countries.

So everybody panicked and took their money out of the stock market and the banks all at once in response.

Overnight, banks went bankrupt and the stock market had the biggest crash it had ever seen before.

This is an inflation adjusted, long term historical look at the stock market in the U.S.

StockMarket

Look! The stock market will go up forever!!!… Maybe?

As you can see, if you’re reading this, you’ve probably witnessed worse crashes happening to the stock market than the Great Depression. Isn’t that crazy to think? But more about that in another post.

Deflation during the Great Depression

The Federal Reserve responded to the crash by raising interest rates, in the hopes of increasing the demand for dollars. This just made the situation worse, as raising interest rates causes more deflation!

People started hoarding their money. They couldn’t trust to put it in the stock market or the banks because they could lose it. Businesses had to stop hiring and had to lay people off because they lost all their money that was in the bank. They had to close their shops because the investment money dried up when it was lost in the stock market. As people took their money out of the banks, there was less paper money in the marketplace, which made it more valuable. People didn’t spend what they had very much and knew it would be more valuable the next day anyway so they continued to hold onto it.

All of this compounded on itself and made the deflation even worse, a deflation spiral downward.

Look at the Great Depression and how peoples’ incomes dropped after the stock market crash.

GDPPerCapita

With no gold standard holding us back, growth in the economy will go up forever!!!… Maybe?

In 1934, Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act, devaluing gold to 40% of its real value. Probably because they were hoping that devaluing gold would cause people to hold less gold, and inflate the currency more. That’s just conjecture though.

Unemployment: Great Depression vs. Great Recession

15% of the GDP was lost during the Depression, compared to the 1% that was lost during what is now called the Great Recession of 2007-08. 25% of people during the Great Depression became unemployed. 1 out of every 4 people you knew was unemployed. Compared to the Great Recession, which had a top unemployment rate of (by the government numbers) 5%. I think it was higher, however, because most sources I have read have stated such. Some saying it almost reached the height of the Great Depression.

Here is an alternate unemployment rate measurement. The larger measurement that shows a larger unemployment rate includes long term and short term discouraged workers, who were taken out of the official government measurement as recently as 1994.

UnemploymentRate

How America got out of the Great Depression: War

In 1934, the government nationalized all gold by ordering the banks to give their gold supply to the U.S. Treasury. They also suspended exchanging paper money for gold.

They raised the maximum income tax rate from 25% to 79% and the minimum income tax rate went from .375% to 4%. To put it in perspective, currently the maximum income tax rate is 55% and the minimum is 0%. Regardless, raising the income tax didn’t help get the country out of the Great Depression. Neither did President FDR’s New Deal. Not even a blip on the recovery radar.

IncomeTaxRates

And then World War II broke out.

The U.S. used to have a defense policy, meaning, don’t attack unless attacked first. Then the Japanese government bombed Pearl Harbor, and that sounded the alarm that it was time to go to war.

I think culture cannot be underestimated when it comes to things that seem to be laws like laws of economics. Americans, having seen their country under attack and fellow citizens killed in cold blood, became focused on justice and patriotism.

Men seemed less concerned about the huge national debt and new hefty taxes and instead ran to their local government offices asking what they could do to help the war effort. Sometimes this meant enlisting, sometimes this meant signing up for a large government contract.

The war was good for employment

As more men enlisted in the military and more businesses began to switch from whatever they were building before to war goods, unemployment numbers began to decline sharply from 25% to under 10%. Not only that, but as men were going to war, businesses, who had previously fired women who were working if their husbands already had jobs, were employing a whole 50% of the population (women) that they hadn’t been employing before. So then the employment numbers looked REALLY good. Everybody seemed to have a job, and a good job, a manufacturing job that produced real “stuff,” unlike the services based economy we have now.

There was more money entering the marketplace, trading hands within the country and outside of it, growing the economy. Or at least looking that way.

Women, employment, and equality

It is my opinion that the war also helped raise women’s standards of equality.

It used to be that men worked all week and handed over their paychecks to their wives on payday, so that she could pay the bills, go grocery shopping, and use it to basically run the household, while he headed to the bar to kick up his feet with his male pals at the end of the week. The women raised the children, the men helped make them, maybe played with them for a while, but mostly spent all their time working long hours, trying to do their part to contribute to the household.

I think both roles are respectable, and I cannot say for sure which one was more difficult because I never lived that life, but from what I have read, women didn’t really have the glory the men got, regardless of how much work they put into the children and the household at large.

Now, with WWII, they were more independent, making their own money, not relying on a man financially, which is currently the #1 reason women stay in abusive relationships with men today. They are dependent on them financially, or at least feel stuck. I think financial freedom, whether you’re a woman or a man, can also contribute to your social freedom. Maybe that’s just my American values seeping out subconsciously, but that’s at least what it seems like to me.

The social stigma of a woman having a job, while not eliminated, was reduced, because everyone was so focused on the values of justice and patriotism, which seemed to override previous values that a woman’s role is to be head of household, except on her tax return. In that case, the man is head of household.  So again, doing the work without any of the glory that a man got.

Now women could physically, practically prove they were just as capable as men by literally doing the work men had previously done. Which in my opinion, subconsciously planted seeds in people’s minds that women could possibly be capable of doing things men could do and sufficiently.

How did the government pay people to fund the war?

They went $321 billion more in debt.  They taxed, spent, inflated, and borrowed.

Federal_Debt_Held_by_the_Public_1790-2013

This is U.S. debt in terms of percentage of GDP

It’s hard to see that well because the bottom chart is zoomed out but do you see how closely it matches in with the very first inflation/deflation graph I showed you?

1280px-US_Historical_Inflation_Ancient

I overlaid the U.S. historical inflation rate with the inflation adjusted price of gold to see if there was a correlation. I know it’s hard to see clearly but it was the best I could do. To me, the peaks and low points seem to line up the closer we get from the 1970s on.

InflationDeflationGoldIA

What happened in 1970? 

The country went off the gold standard completely. This caused inflation to rise, and stay inflated for what looks like the longest amount of time since 1650. It seems that as inflation rose to high levels again, the price of gold skyrocketed. Also in 1970, it became legal for private ownership of gold again. The high spike might be due to that too. It’s hard to say because there are so many variables someone smarter than me would have to control for.

What happened in the 1980’s that caused the price of gold to drop so drastically?

The central bank raised interest rates and gave incentives to banks, who typically do the same thing when the Federal Reserve does something. It’s a complex process that involves buying treasury bonds that I would love to cover in a different post.

As interest rates rose, it made less sense to own gold. It made more sense to hold on to your money and put it in savings. People sold their gold because it was at an all time high and became very wealthy if they sold at the right time.

How deflation is bad

The bad part though, was that GDP shrunk. There was less money going around in the marketplace. Business didn’t hire as much because it made more sense to hoard the money, considering it could be more valuable later. The unemployment rate went up.

How deflation is good

The Federal Reserve was destroying dollars to make the currency rarer, and and it became more valuable. Foreign countries bought U.S. dollars in the hopes that they would gain more value tomorrow.

How inflation is bad

The reason they raised interest rates was to control the inflation rate that people were afraid was rising too fast and too high.

High inflation means higher prices, especially on commodities such as food and energy, which is why oil prices went up to very high levels in the 70’s and the government had a failed policy of rationing, which is also something I’d love to cover in another post because this one is already incredible long.

CPI

In 1970, the U.S. went off the gold standard, remember? Also, inflation has stayed up since then. Prices have also gone up.

High inflation discourages savings because the money becomes less valuable over time, and if the inflation rate is higher than the interest rate you would get on a savings account, the money’s value gets eaten away and there’s no real incentive to keep saving.

How inflation is good

Inflation is good for paying off debt and racking up debt because you can pay it back with inflated dollars. There’s more money in the marketplace going around, printed by the Federal Reserve and expanded by the banks. Say I have a student loan debt of $8,000 in 1980. By the time I pay it off in 2000, 20 years later, my income is $50,000 and $8,000 seems like nothing, so I pay it off.

Here’s another interesting one on the price of gold historically.

Notice that when inflation goes up, the price of gold goes up. That’s because paper dollars are becoming less valuable and gold is staying relatively the same, since there is a more fixed amount of gold in the world than paper. I will show you what it looks inflation adjusted too.

GoldPriceHistorically

(Larger)

This one is inflation adjusted gold prices. Notice also how when interest rates go down, gold prices go up. That’s because the currency becomes more volatile, so people will buy more gold, increasing its value, because there’s less gold in the marketplace, and gold becomes a more stable, reliable place to store your money over a long term horizon.

InflationAdjustedGoldPrices

And here’s historical interest rates.

long-term-interest-rates-us

And here are interest rates overlaid with gold prices.

GoldInterestRates

The one exception to gold prices going up and down with interest rates was during the South African and Yukon discoveries of gold. That makes sense to me because finding a fuckton of gold is going to make everyone start buying up all the gold they can get for free, by mining it. So when regardless of when interest rates went down, the price went up. That seems to be the only time though.

However, there was also the discovery of gold in California and Australia in the mid-1800s. I wonder why interest rates went up AND gold prices went up at the same time. You would think with more gold circling the marketplace, the price would go down, because of inflation.

Well, let’s see how much gold was actually mined, and how much it was worth at its height, and how much was actually found. That way we can determine if the amount found was enough to flood the marketplace and reduce or increase the price.

C