Things I Wish I’d Learned in School

ARTS

Performing arts:

  • dance
  • theater
  • television
  • music
  • film

Visual arts:

  • painting
  • mixed media
  • drawing
  • architecture
  • photography
  • fashion design
  • user experience design

 

HUMANITIES

Geography:

  • economic geography
  • political geography

History:

  • history (world)
  • economic history

Languages and literature:

  • linguistics
  • creative writing
  • world literature

Philosophy:

  • aesthetics (philosophy)
  • ethics (philosophy)
  • logic (philosophy)

Theology:

  • biblical studies
  • multicultural theology

 

SOCIAL SCIENCES

Anthropology:

  • biological anthropology
  • linguistic anthropology
  • social anthropology

Economics:

  • microeconomics

Law:

  • american law
  • comparative law

Political science:

  • american politics

Psychology:

  • history of psychology
  • psychological theories

Sociology:

  • political sociology
  • comparative sociology

 

NATURAL SCIENCES

Biology:

  • human biology
  • biochemistry
  • nutrition
  • molecular biology
  • neuroscience

Chemistry:

  • organic chemistry

Earth sciences:

  • environmental science
  • planetary science
  • paleontology
  • geology

Space sciences:

  • astrophysics
  • astronomy

Physics:

  • atomic, molecular, and optical physics

 

FORMAL SCIENCES

Computer science:

  • programming languages
  • computer security
  • algorithms
  • software engineering

Mathematics:

  • arithmetic
  • algebra
  • geometry
  • number theory
  • mathematical logic

Statistics

 

APPLIED SCIENCES

Engineering:

  • mechanical engineering
  • chemical engineering
  • systems science

Medicine and health sciences:

  • physical fitness
  • anatomy
  • veterinary medicine
  • nursing
  • rehabilitation medicine
  • neurology
  • internal medicine

The Best Hikes of Washington State (in order of shortest to longest)

The following highly rated hikes from across the web are in order from shortest hike to longest hike in time it takes to hike the trail. They are also in two categories, either easy or moderate. None of the hikes are too hard to complete for a beginning to intermediate hiker.

I’ve included alltrails.com as my source URL because they have the best website I’ve found for hiking information.

“Gets snow in winter” means if there’s a cold front coming through the region, it is likely that this hike will be covered in snow. “Gets snow in winter” is not to say the places without the indication never get snow. Sometimes snow can happen November-March in Washington state.

 

  1. Carbon River Rain Forest Nature Trail

0.3 miles – 6 min loop hike (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/carbon-river-rain-forest-nature-trail

carbonriver

 

 

2. Picture Lake Path

0.4 miles – 8 min loop hike (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/picture-lake-path

picturelake

3. Iron Creek Falls

0.2 miles – 4 min hike (8 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-creek-falls

ironcreek

4. Ski Hill Trail

0.4 miles – 9 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ski-hill-loop-trail

skihill

 

5. Deception Falls Interpretive Trail

0.6 miles – 12 min loop hike (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/deception-falls-interpretive-trail

deceptionfalls

6. North Fork Sauk Falls Trail

0.3 miles – 6 min hike (12 min total there and back) (only open April-December)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/north-fork-sauk-falls-trail

northfork

7. Trail of the Shadows Trail

0.7 miles – 13 min loop hike (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/trail-of-the-shadows-trail

trailoftheshadows

8. Harstine Island State Park Trail

0.7 miles – 14 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/harstine-island-state-park-trail

hartine

9. Panther Creek Falls Trail 137

0.4 miles – 8 min hike (16 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/panther-creek-falls-trail-137

panthercreek

10. Layser Cave Trail

0.4 miles – 8 min hike (16 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/layser-cave-trail

laysercave

11. Quinault Rain Forest Nature Trail

0.9 miles – 18 min loop hike – (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/quinault-rain-forest-nature-trail

quinaultrain

12. Nisqually Vista Trail

1 mile – 19 min loop hike (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nisqually-vista-trail

nisqually

13. Discovery Trail Ft. Steilacoom

1.1 miles – 22 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/discovery-trail-ft-steilacoom

discoverytrail

14. Gold Creek Pond Trail

1.2 miles – 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/gold-creek-pond-trail

goldcreek

15. Weatherwax Trail

1.2 miles – 23 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/weatherwax-trail

weatherwaxtrail

16. Nolte State Park Deep

13 reviews – 1.4 miles – 28 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nolte-state-park-deep-lake

nolte

17. Bagley Creek Loop Trail

1.4 miles – 30 min loop hike (only open July-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bagley-creek-loop-trail

bagley

18. Kubota Garden Natural Area

0.8 miles – 17 min hike (34 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/kubota-garden-natural-area-trails

kubota

19. Purcell Falls Trail

0.9 miles – 17 min hike (34 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/purcell-falls

purcell

20. Washington Park Trail

2.1 miles – 43 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/washington-park-trail

washingtonpark

21. Boulder Cave Trail

1.2 miles – 24 min hike (48 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/boulder-cave-barrier-free-trail

boulder

22. Cascade Lake Trail

2.4 miles – 50 min loop hike (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cascade-lake-trail

cascadelake

23. Fallsview Canyon Trail

1.3 miles – 25 min hike (50 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/fallsview-canyon-trail

fallsview

24. Hummocks Trail

2.5 miles – 51 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hummocks-trail

hummocks

25. Silver Falls Trail

2.8 miles – 57 min loop hike (only open May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-falls-trail

silverfalls

26. Grand Forest Park Trail

2.8 miles – 57 min loop hike
http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/grand-forest-park-trail

grandforest

27. Murhut Falls Trail

1.4 miles – 29 min hike (58 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/murhut-falls-trail

murhut

28. Penrose Point State Park Trail

2.8 miles – 58 min loop hike – 1 hr 16 min drive

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/penrose-point-state-park-trail

penrose-point-state-park-trail

29. Obstruction Pass Trail

1.4 miles – 29 min hike (58 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/obstruction-pass-trail

obstruction

30. Dosewallips Steam Donkey Trail

3 miles – 1 hr 2 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/dosewalips-steam-donkey-trail

dosewallips-steam-donkey-trail

31. Nathan Chapman Memorial Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 3 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/nathan-chapman-memorial-trail

nathan-chapman-memorial-trail

32. Damon Point State Park Trail

3.2 miles – 1 hr 4 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/damon-point-state-park-trail

damon-point-state-park-trail

33. Cowiche Canyon Conservancy Trails

3.3 miles – 1 hr 5 min loop hike (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cowiche-canyon-conservancy-trails

cowiche-canyon-conservancy-trails

34. Cape Flattery Trail

1.2 miles – 33 min loop hike (1 hr 6 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cape-flattery-trail

cape-flattery-trail

35. Naches Peak Loop Trail

3.4 miles – 1 hr 10 min loop hike (July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/naches-peak-loop-trail

SONY DSC

36. Sol Duc Falls Trail

1.7 miles – 35 min hike (1 hr 10 min total there and back) (May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sol-duc-falls-trail

sol-duc-falls-trail

37. Ebey’s Landing Trail

3.5 miles – 1 hr 11 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ebeys-landing-trail

ebeys-landing-trail

38. Umtanum Creek Falls Trail

1.8 miles – 36 min hike (1 hr 12 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open February-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/umtanum-creek-falls-trail

DCIM100GOPROGOPR0340.

39. Steamboat Rock Trail

3.8 miles – 1 hr 17 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/steamboat-rock-hike-poliganders-family-hikes

steamboat-rock-trail

40. Quinault Loop Trail

4 miles – 1 hr 20 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-quinault-loop-trail

quinault-loop-trail

41. Bowman Bay via Rosario Head Trail

4 miles – 1 hr 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bowman-bay-rosario-head-trail

bowman-bay-via-rosario-head-trail

42. Meadowdale Beach Trails

2.3 miles – 45 min hike (1 hr 30 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/meadowdale-county-park-and-beach-trails

meadowdale-beach-trails

44. Adventure Trail

2.3 miles – 48 min hike (1 hr 36 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/adventure-trail

adventure-trail

45. Pinnacle Peak Saddle Trail

2.5 miles – 50 min hike (1 hr 40 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/pinnacle-peak-trail

pinnacle-peak-saddle-trail

46. Spirit of America Trail

2.5 miles – 52 min hike (1 hr 44 min total there and back) (only open September-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/america-trail

spirit-of-america-trail

47. Sequalitchew Creek Trail

2.6 miles – 54 min hike (1 hr 48 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sequalitchew-creek

sequalitchew-creek-trail

48. Guemes Mountain

2.6 miles – 54 min hike – (1 hr 48 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/guemes-mountain

guemes

49. Golden Gate Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 20 min loop hike (only open July-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/golden-gate-trail

golden-gate-trail

50. Skyline Loop Trail

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min loop hike (only open July-September)
http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/skyline-loop-trail

skyline-loop-trail

51. Iron Goat Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-goat-trail

iron-goat-trail

52. Sunrise Rim Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sunrise-rim-trail

sunrise-rim-trail

53. Lovers Lane Trail

5.5 miles – 1 hr 50 min loop hike (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lovers-lane-trail

lovers-lane-trail

54. Sauk Mountain Trail

2.8 miles – 56 min hike (1 hr 52 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sauk-mountain-trail

sauk-mountain-trail

55. Lower Falls Creek Trail

3 miles – 1 hr hike (2 hrs total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-falls-creek-trail

lower-falls-creek-trail

56. Duthie Mountain Bike Park

3 miles – 1 hr 1 min hike (2 hrs 2 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/duthie-mountain-bike-park

duthie-mountain-bike-park

57. Sammamish River Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 1 min hike (2 hrs 2 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sammamish-river-trail

sammamish-river-trail

58. High Rock Lookout Trail

3.1 miles – 1 hr 2 min hike (2 hrs 4 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/high-rock-lookout-trail

high-rock-lookout-trail

59. Hurricane Hill Trail

3.2 miles – 1 hr 4 min hike (2 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hurricane-hill-trail

hurricane-hill-trail

60. Heybrook Lookout Trail

1.9 miles – 38 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/heybrook-lookout-trail

heybrook-lookout-trail

61. Copper Creek Trail

3.3 miles – 1 hr 8 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/copper-creek-trail

copper-creek-trail

62. Fort Ebey State Park Loop

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 18 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/fort-ebey-state-park-loop

fort-ebey-state-park-loop

63. Sequalitchew Creek Trail

3.3 miles – 1 hr 8 min hike (2 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sequalitchew-creek–2

sequalitchew-creek-trail2

64. Hamilton Mountain and Rodney Falls Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 19 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hamilton-mountain-and-rodney-falls

hamilton-mountain-and-rodney-falls-trail

65. Lake 22 Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 20 min loop hike (only open May-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-22-trail

lake-22-trail

66. Kelly Butte Trail (#1031)

3.5 miles – 1 hr 10 min hike (2 hrs 20 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/kelly-butte-trail

lake-22-trail

67. Hamilton Mountain Loop Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 23 min loop hike – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hamilton-mountain-loop-trail

hamilton-mountain-loop-trail

68. Lake Christine Trail

3.6 miles – 1 hr 14 min hike (2 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-christine-trail-to-mt-beljica

DSC_0719

69. Bridal Veil Falls Trail

3.8 miles – 1 hr 17 min hike (2 hrs 34 min total here and back) (June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bridal-veil-falls-trail

bridal-veil-falls-trail

70. Sauer’s Mountain

5.2 miles – 1 hr 47 min hike (2 hrs 34 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sauers-mountain

sauers-mountain

71. Coulon Beach Park Trails

3.8 miles – hike 1 hr 17 min (2 hrs 34 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/coulon-beach-park

coulon-beach-park-trails

72. Iron Horse Trail: Upper Twin Falls to Mine Creek

5.4 miles – 1 hr 48 min hike (2 hrs 36 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/iron-horse-trail-upper-twin-falls-to-mine-creek

iron-horse-trail-upper-twin-falls-to-mine-creek

73. Hole-in-the-Wall Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 19 min hike (2 hrs 38 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hole-in-the-wall-trail

hole-in-the-wall-trail

74. Thomas Lake Trail

3.9 miles – 1 hr 19 min hike (2 hrs 38 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/thomas-lake-trail

thomas-lake-trail

75. Glacier View Trail (#267)

4.1 miles – 1 hr 24 min hike (2 hrs 48 min total there and back) – 2 hr 7 min drive (July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/glacier-view-trail

glacier-view-trail-267

76. The Ozette Loop Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hr 54 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cape-alava-loop

ozettelooptrail

77. Lava Canyon Trail

4.4. miles – 1 hr 28 min hike (2 hrs 56 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lava-canyon-trail

lava-canyon-trail

78. Harrys Ridge Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hrs 57 min hike (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/harrys-ridge

harrys-ridge-trail

79. Ozette Triangle Trail

8.7 miles – 2 hrs 59 min hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ozette-triangle-trail

ozette-triangle-trail

80. Silver Star Trail

4.4 miles – 1 h 30 min hike (3 hrs total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-star-trail

silver-star-trail

81. Ape Cave Trail

4.6 miles – 1 hr 32 min hike (3 hrs 4 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ape-cave-trail

ape-cave-trail

82. Frenchman Coulee

4.8 miles – 1 hr 36 min hike (3 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/frenchman-coulee

frenchman-coulee

83. Quinault River Pony Bridge Trail

4.8 miles – 1 hr 36 min hike (3 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/quinault-river-pony-bridge-trail

quinault-river-pony-bridge-trail

84. South Bay Trail

4.9 miles – 1 hr 39 min hike (3 hrs 18 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/south-bay-trail

south-bay-trail

85. Larch Mountain Trail

5 miles – 1 hr 40 min hike (3 hrs 20 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/larch-mtn

larch-mountain-trail

86. Falls Creek Trail Loop

5.1 miles – 1 hr 42 min hike (3 hrs 24 min total there and back) gets snow in winter  (only open March-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/falls-creek-trail

falls-creek-trail-loop

87. Sheep Lake Trail

5.1 miles – 1 hr 42 min hike – (3 hrs 24 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sheep-lake-trail

sheep-lake-trail

88. Observation Peak Trail

5.2 miles – 1 hr 44 min hike (3 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/observation-peak-trail

observation-peak-trail

89. Tolmie Peak Trail

5.2 miles – 1 hr 46 min hike (3 hrs 32 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tolmie-peak-lookout-trail

tolmie-peak-trail

90. Anderson and Watson Lakes Trail

5.3 miles – 1 hr 46 min hike (3 hrs 32 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/anderson-watson-lakes-trail

anderson-and-watson-lakes-trail

91. Comet and Christine Falls

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min hike (3 hrs 38 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/comet-falls-trail

comet-and-christine-falls

92. Tommy Thompson Trail

5.4 miles – 1 hr 49 min hike (3 hrs 38 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tommy-thompson-trail

tommy-thompson-trail

93. Goat Lake Trail

10.7 miles – 3 hrs 39 min loop hike (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/goat-lake-trail

goat-lake-trail

94. Round Mountain Trail

5.5. miles – 1 hr 50 min hike (3 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/round-mountain-trail

round-mountain-trail

95. Oyster Dome Trail

5.3 miles – 1 hr 51 min hike (3 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open May-August)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/oyster-dome-trail

oyster-dome-trail

96. Silver Lake Way Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 53 min hike (3 hrs 46 min total there and back) (only open June-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/silver-lakes-trail

silver-lake-way-trail

97. Mount Fremont Lookout Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back) (only open April-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/mount-fremont-lookout-trail

mount-fremont-lookout-trail

98. Soos Creek Trail

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/soos-creek-trail

sooscreek

99. Tonga Ridge and Mount Sawyer

5.7 miles – 1 hr 55 min hike (3 hrs 50 min total there and back)  (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/tonga-ridge-and-mount-sawyer

tonga-ridge-and-mount-sawyer

100. Summit Lake Trail

5.9 miles – 1 hr 59 min hike (3 hrs 58 min) (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/summit-lake-trail-wa-1177–2

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

101. Old Sauk River Trail

5.8 miles – 2 hrs 1 min hike (4 hrs 2 min there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/old-sauk-trail

old-sauk-river-trail

102. Petes Creek Trail to Colonel Bob Peak Trail

6.1 miles – 2 hrs 1 min hike (4 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/petes-creek-colonel-bob-peak-trail

petes-creek-trail-to-colonel-bob-peak-trail

103. Sheep Lake and Sourdough Gap Trail

5.9 miles –  2 hrs 1 min (4 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sheep-lake-and-sourdough-gap-trail

sheep-lake-and-sourdough-gap-trail

104. Larrabee State Park Campground

12.4 miles – 4 hrs 13 min loop hike

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/larrabee-state-park-campground

larrabee-state-park-campground

105. Snow Lake Trail

6.6 miles – 2 hr 13 min hike (4 hr 26 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/snow-lake-trail

snow-lake-trail

106. Shi Shi Beach Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 13 min hike (4 hrs 26 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/shi-shi-beach-trail

shi-shi-beach-trail

107. Sourdough Gap (past Sheep Lake)

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 13 min hike (4 hrs 26 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/sourdough-gap-past-sheep-lake

sourdough-gap-past-sheep-lake

108. Lower Lake Lena Trail

6.7 miles – 2 hrs 14 min hike (4 hrs 28 min total there and back) (only open May-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-lake-lena

lower-lake-lena-trail

109. Turtleback Mountain South Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 17 min hike (4 hrs 34 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/turtleback-mountain-trail

turtleback-mountain-south-trail

110. Noble Knob Trail

6.9 miles – 2 hrs 18 min hike (4 hrs 36 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/noble-knob-trail

noble-knob-trail

111. Yellow Aster Butte Trail

7.1 miles – 2 hrs 21 min hike (4 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/yellow-aster-butte-trail

yellow-aster-butte-trail

112. Spray Park Trail

7.2 miles – 2 hrs 28 min hike (4 hrs 56 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/spray-park-trail

spray-park-trail

113. Red Mountain via Old Commonwealth Trail

7.3 miles – 2 hrs 33 min hike (5 hrs 6 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/commonwealth-basin-red-pass-trail

red-mountain-via-old-commonwealth-trail

114. Discovery Trail

7.5 miles – 2 hrs 30 min hike (5 hrs total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/discovery-trail

discovery

115. Beckler Peak

7.5 miles – 2 hrs 34 min hike (5 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/beckler-peak-lookout-site

beckler-peak

116. Skyline Divide Trail

7.7 miles – 2 hrs 36 min hike (5 hrs 12 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/skyline-divide

skyline-divide-trail

117. Lewis River Falls Trail

7.7 miles – 2 hrs 42 min hike (5 hrs 24 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lewis-river-trail-out-and-back

lewis-river-falls-trail

118. Bare Mountain Trail

8.2 miles – 2 hrs 44 min hike (6 hrs 28 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/bare-mountain-trail

bare-mountain-trail

119. Coldwater Lake Trail

8.3 miles – 2 hrs 45 min hike (5 hrs 30 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/coldwater-lake-trail

coldwater-lake-trail

120. Otter and Big Creek Falls Via Taylor River Trail

8.3 miles – 2 hrs 50 min hike (5 hrs 40 min total there and back) – gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/otter-and-big-creek-falls-trail

otter-and-big-creek-falls-via-taylor-river-trail

121. Melakwa Lake via Denny Creek Trail

8.5 miles – 2 hr 51 min hike (5 hrs 42 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/melakwa-lake-trail

melakwa-lake-via-denny-creek-trail

122. Lake Stuart Trail

8.6 miles – 2 hrs 57 min hike (5 hrs 54 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/stuart-lakes-trail

lake-stuart-trail

123. Lake Ann

9.1 miles – 3 hrs 1 min hike (6 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-ann

lake-ann

124. South Coldwater Trail to Lakes Trail

18.7 miles – 6 hrs 17 min loop hike (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/south-coldwater-trail-to-lakes-trail

south-coldwater-trail-to-lakes-trail

125. Packwood Lake Trail

9.2 miles – 3 hrs 9 min hike (6 hrs 18 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/packwood-lake-trail

packwood-lake-trail

126. Gobblers Knob/Lake George Trail

9.5 miles – 3 hrs 10 min hike (6 hrs 20 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/gobblers-knob-lake-george-trail

gobblers-knoblake-george-trail

127. Green Lake Trail

9.5 miles – 3 hrs 16 min hike (6 hrs 32 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/green-lake-trail

green-lake-trail

128. Crystal Mountain Trail

9.6 miles – 3 hrs 17 min hike (6 hrs 34 min total there and back) (only open June-September)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/crystal-mountain-trail

crystal-mountain-trail

129. Cutthroat Lake and Cutthroat Pass

9.6 miles – 3 hrs 20 min hike (6 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/cutthroat-lake-and-cutthroat-pass

cutthroat-lake-and-cutthroat-pass

130. Dungeness Spit Trail

10.2 miles – 3 hrs 29 min hike (6 hrs 58 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/dungeness-spit-trail

dungeness-spit-trail

131. Wonderland Trail to Panhandle Gap

11.4 miles – 3 hrs 50 min hike (7 hrs 40 min total there and back) (only open July-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/summerland-trail

wonderland-trail-to-panhandle-gap

132. Palisades Trail (#1198)

11.3 miles – 3 hrs 53 min hike (7 hrs 46 min total there and back) gets snow in winter

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/palisades-trail–2

palisades-trail-1198

133. Boulder Lakes Trail

11.4 miles – 3 hr 54 min hike (7 hr 48 min total there and back) (only open June-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/boulder-lakes-trail

boulder-lakes-trail

134. Lower Dungeness Trail

11.7 miles – 3 hrs 58 min hike (7 hrs 56 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-dungeness-trail

lower-dungeness-trail

135. Lake Valhalla Trail

11.9 miles – 4 hrs 2 min hike (8 hrs 4 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lake-valhalla

lake-valhalla-trail

136. Lower Siouxon Creek Trail

13.4 miles – 4 hrs 34 min hike (9 hrs 8 min total there and back) (only open February-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/lower-siouxon-creek-trail

lower-siouxon-creek-trail

137. Colonel Bob Trail

13.6 miles – 4 hrs 38 min hike (9 hrs 16 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/colonel-bob-mountain-trail

colonel-bob-trail

138. Chehalis Western Trail

13.8 miles – 4 hrs 41 min (9 hrs 22 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/chehalis-western-trail

chehalis-western-trail

139. Flapjack Lakes Trail

14.2 miles – 4 hrs 51 min hike (9 hrs 42 min total there and back) gets snow in winter (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/flapjack-lakes-trail

flapjack-lakes-trail

140. Third Beach to Hoh River

15.6 miles – 5 hr 17 min hike (10 hr 34 min total there and back) (only open March-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/third-beach-to-oil-city

third-beach-to-hoh-river

141. Shi Shi to Ozette River Beach Trail

17.9 miles – 6 hrs 1 min hike (12 hrs 2 min total there and back) (only open April-November)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/olympic-coast-north-backpacking

shi-shi-to-ozette-river-beach-trail

142. Spruce Railroad Trail

20.6 miles – 6 hrs 36 min hike (13 hrs 12 min total there and back) (spring 2017)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/old-olympic

spruce-railroad-trail

143. Siouxon Trail

21.3 miles – 7 hrs 11 min hike (14 hrs 22 min total there and back)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/siouxon-trail

siouxontrail

144. Ingalls Creek Trail to Lake Ingalls

28.4 miles – 9 hrs 33 min hike (19 hrs 6 min total there and back) (only open May-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/ingalls-creek-trail

ingalls-creek-trail-to-lake-ingalls

145. Hoh River Trail

32.8 miles – 10 hrs 48 min hike (21 hrs 36 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/hoh-river-trail

hoh-river-trail

146. Duckabush River to Lacrosse Pass Trail

41.9 miles – 14 hrs 16 min hike (28 hrs 32 min total there and back) (only open April-October)

http://www.alltrails.com/trail/us/washington/duckabush-river-trail

duckabush-river-to-lacrosse-pass-trail

War.

Wars by Death Toll

list_of_wars_by_death_toll

(Source)

 

War | Death toll | Year | Region

Total (all wars) | 487,767,309 | Recorded history | Worldwide

  1. World War II | 58,309,519 | 1939-1945 | Worldwide
  2. Mongol conquests | 52,915,026 | 1206-1324 | Eurasia
  3. Taiping Rebellion | 44,721,360 | 1850-1864 | China
  4. Three Kingdoms War | 37,947,332 | 184-280 | China
  5. Conquest of the Americas | 34,016,173 | 1492-1691 | Americas
  6. Second Sino-Japanese War | 25,000,000 | 1937-1945 | China
  7. Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming Dynasty | 25,000,000 | 1616-1662 | China
  8. An Lushan Rebellion | 21,633,308 | 755-763 | China
  9. World War I/Great War | 20,000,000 | 1914-1918 | Worldwide
  10. Dungan Revolt | 12,890,306 | 1862-1877 | China

 

War deaths have been declining since 1945 worldwide:

warsafter1946

(Source)

 

Defense spending as a percentage of GDP was at its height since 1948 during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

defensespending

(Source)

 

Global deaths from terrorism have been highest in the rest of the world and lowest in Western countries

globalterrorism

(Source)

The United States spends almost half of the world’s dollars on military

globalmilitaryspending

(Source)

 

Number of Syrian refugees by region

syrianrefugees

(Source)

 

Syrian war death toll

syriandeathtoll

(Source)

Fastest Declining Occupations (below -2% growth rate, average is +7%)

Switchboard operators, including answering service

Answer incoming calls, greeting callers, providing information, transferring calls or taking messages as necessary.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -33%

salary median: $27,440

 

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -33%

salary median: $26,590

 

Shoe machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -31%

salary median: $25,190

 

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -30%

salary median: $30,050

 

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Examine, sort, and route mail. Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery. Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks; and other duties related to mail handling within the postal service.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -28%

salary median: $56,740

 

Postal service clerks

Perform any combination of tasks in a post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -28%

salary median: $56,790

 

Sewing machine operators

The sewing machine operator is a person highly skilled in sewing clothes, maintaining good quality and standard of clothes produced. He/she makes use of the sewing machine to decorate and perform connected sewing operations in the manufacturing of garments and other materials.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -27%

salary median: $22,550

 

Postmasters and mail superintendents

Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and supportive services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -26%

salary median: $70,640

 

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -26%

salary median: $27,220

 

Watch repairers

Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers. Repair or replace broken, damaged, or worn parts on timepieces, using lathes, drill presses, and hand tools.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -26%

salary median: $34,750

 

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.

education requirement: High school diploma or Bachelor’s Degree

growth rate: -26%

salary median: $43,900

 

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -26%

salary median: $25,490

 

Locomotive firers

Monitor locomotive instruments and watch for dragging equipment, obstacles on rights-of-way, and train signals during run. Watch for and relay traffic signals from yard workers to yard engineer in railroad yard.

education requirement: High school diploma, on the job training

growth rate: -25%

salary median: $48,470

 

Prepress technicians and workers

Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates.

education requirement: High school diploma or Associate’s degree

growth rate: -25%

salary median: $38,270

 

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

Set up, operate, or tend machines to extrude or draw thermoplastic or metal materials into tubes, rods, hoses, wire, bars, or structural shapes.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -24%

salary median: $33,120

 

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -24%

salary median: $26,340

 

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns, core boxes, or match plates.

education requirement: Post-secondary certificate

growth rate: -23%

salary median: $40,960

 

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

Set up, operate, or tend grinding and related tools that remove excess material or burrs from surfaces, sharpen edges or corners, or buff, hone, or polish metal or plastic work pieces.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -22%

salary median: $32,840

 

Model makers, metal and plastic

Set up and operate machines, such as lathes, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects. Includes template makers.

education requirement: Post-secondary certificate

growth rate: -22%

salary median: $45,980

 

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -22%

salary median: $26,870

 

Desktop publishers

Desktop publishers use computer software to design page layouts for newspapers, books, brochures, and other items that are printed or published online.

education requirement: High school diploma, on the job training

growth rate: -21%

salary median: $39,840

 

Parking enforcement workers

Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles. Patrol an assigned area by vehicle or on foot to ensure public compliance with existing parking ordinance.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -21%

salary median: $36,530

 

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

Set up, operate, or tend milling or planing machines to mill, plane, shape, groove, or profile metal or plastic work pieces.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -21%

salary median: $38,250

 

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

Set up, operate, or tend forging machines to taper, shape, or form metal or plastic parts.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -13%

salary median: $35,070

 

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

Set up, operate, or tend metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines to mold or cast metal or thermoplastic parts or products.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -13%

salary median: $29,340

 

Telephone Operators

Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -9%

salary median: $35,880

 

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers install or repair a variety of electrical equipment in telecommunications, transportation, utilities, and other industries.

education requirement: Technical college, voluntary certification

growth rate: -4%

salary median: $31,360

 

Pourers and casters, metal

Operate hand-controlled mechanisms to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -3%

salary median: $33,850

 

Postal service mail carriers

Sort mail for delivery. Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -3%

salary median: $58,280

 

Foundry mold and coremakers

Make or form wax or sand cores or molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: -2%

salary median: $32,680

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fastest Growing Occupations (above 27% growth rate, average is 7%)

Wind turbine service technicians

Wind turbine service technicians, also known as windtechs, install, maintain, and repair wind turbines.

education requirement: Technical school, trained by employer after hiring

growth rate: 108%

salary median: $51,050

 

Occupational Therapy Assistants

Occupational therapy assistants help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy assistants are directly involved in providing therapy to patients. Assistants work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in occupational therapy assistant program

growth rate: 40%

salary median: $54,520

 

Occupational Therapy Aides

Occupational therapy aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Aides work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: High school diploma, on the job training

growth rate: 39%

salary median: $21,920

 

Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides

Physical therapist assistants, sometimes called PTAs, and physical therapist aides work under the direction and supervision of physical therapists. They help patients who are recovering from injuries and illnesses regain movement and manage pain.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in physical therapy

growth rate: 41%

salary median: $42,980

 

Home Health Aides

Home health aides help people with disabilities, chronic illness, or cognitive impairment with activities of daily living. They often help older adults who need assistance. In some states, home health aides may be able to give a client medication or check the client’s vital signs under the direction of a nurse or other healthcare practitioner.

education requirement: High school diploma, hospice or home health agency for formal training and standardized test

growth rate: 38%

salary median: $21,920

 

Commercial Divers

Work below surface of water, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment.

education requirement: Associate’s degree of postsecondary certificate, licensure, dive training and safety training program

growth rate: 37%

salary median: $50,470

 

Nurse Anesthetists, Nurse Midwives, and Nurse Practitioners

Nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners, also referred to as advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), coordinate patient care and may provide primary and specialty healthcare. The scope of practice varies from state to state.

education requirement: Master’s degree in ARNP, state and national certification exam

growth rate: 31%

salary median: $104,740

 

Physical Therapist

Physical therapists, sometimes called PTs, help injured or ill people improve their movement and manage their pain. These therapists are often an important part of the rehabilitation, treatment, and prevention of patients with chronic conditions, illnesses, or injuries.

education requirement: Doctor of Physical Therapy degree, licensure

growth rate: 34%

salary median: $84,020

 

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

Drive ambulances in transporting sick, injured of convalescent persons. Remove and replace soiled linens or equipment to maintain sanitary conditions. Place patients on stretchers and load stretchers into ambulances.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: 33%

salary median: $23,740

 

Occupational Therapy Aides

Occupational therapy aides help patients develop, recover, and improve the skills needed for daily living and working. Occupational therapy aides typically perform support activities. Aides work under the direction of occupational therapists.

education requirement: Associate’s degree in occupational therapy assistance, licensure

growth rate: 31%

salary median: $27,800

 

Physician Assistants

Physician assistants, also known as PAs, practice medicine on teams with physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare workers. They examine, diagnose, and treat patients.

education requirement: Master’s degree, licensure

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $98,180

 

Operations Research Analysts

Operations research analysts use advanced mathematical and analytical methods to help organizations investigate complex issues, identify and solve problems, and make better decisions.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree for entry-level positions, Master’s degree or Ph.D. in operations research, management science, analytics, math, engineering, computer science, or another technical or quantitative field

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $78,630

 

Personal Financial Advisors

Personal financial advisors provide advice on investments, insurance, mortgages, college savings, estate planning, taxes, and retirement to help individuals manage their finances.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree but a Master’s degree and certification can improve chances for advancement

growth rate: 30%

salary median: $89,160

 

Cartographers and Photogrammetrists  

Cartographers and photogrammetrists collect, measure, and interpret geographic information in order to create and update maps and charts for regional planning, education, emergency response, and other purposes.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree in cartography, geography, or geomatics, surveying is the most common path of entry into this occupation, licensure in some states

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $61,880

 

Genetic Counselors  

Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. They provide information and support to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.

education requirement: Master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics, board certification

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $72,090

 

Interpreters and Translators 

Interpreters and translators convert information from one language into another language. Interpreters work in spoken or sign language; translators work in written language.

education requirement: Bachelor’s degree, knowledge of at least one other language, job specific training program

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $44,190

 

Audiologists 

Audiologists diagnose, manage, and treat a patient’s hearing, balance, or ear problems.

education requirement: Doctoral degree, licensure

growth rate: 29%

salary median: $74,890

 

Hearing Aid Specialists 

Select and administer tests to evaluate hearing or related disabilities. Administer basic hearing tests including air conduction, bone conduction, or speech audiometry tests. Train clients to use hearing aids or other augmentative communication devices. Create or modify impressions for earmolds and hearing aid shells. Maintain and repair hearing aids or other communication devices. Demonstrate assistive listening devices to clients. Diagnose and treat hearing or related disabilities under the direct of an audiologist. Perform basic screening procedures such as pure tone screening, otoacoustic screening, immittance screening, and screening of ear canal status using otoscope. Assist audiologists in performing aural procedures such as real ear measurements, speech audiometry, auditory brainstem responses, electronystagmography, and cochlear implant mapping.

education requirement: High school diploma

growth rate: 27%

salary median: $49,600

 

Optometrists 

Optometrists examine the eyes and other parts of the visual system. They also diagnose and treat visual problems and manage diseases, injuries, and other disorders of the eyes. They prescribe eyeglasses or contact lenses as needed.

education requirement: Doctor of Optometry, licensure

growth rate: 27%

salary median: $103,900

Political Positions on the Spectrum Explained in Plain English

 

LIBERTARIAN

A libertarian supports…

  • maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters
  • a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence
  • individual responsibility
  • private charity
  • diverse lifestyles
  • the free market
  • defending civil liberties
  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • sanctuary cities
  • Edward Snowden
  • fracking
  • clean alternative energy
  • oil drilling
  • felony voting rights

A libertarian opposes…

  • government bureaucracy
  • excessive taxation
  • Planned Parenthood funding
  • death penalty
  • Obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • border wall
  • Common Core
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • Affirmative Action
  • Mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • climate change regulations

 

REPUBLICAN

A republican supports…

  • free market capitalism
  • free enterprise
  • business
  • a strong national defense
  • deregulation
  • restrictions on labor unions
  • social-conservative policies
  • traditional values (usually Christian in foundation)
  • War on Drugs
  • school choice
  • individual achievement
  • fracking
  • death penalty
  • border wall
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • USA Patriot Act
  • oil drilling

A republican opposes…

  • immigration amnesty
  • abortion rights
  • Planned Parenthood
  • drugs
  • Obamacare
  • Common Core
  • gun control
  • minimum wage
  • estate tax
  • Environmental Protection Agency
  • global warming/climate change regulations
  • same-sex marriage
  • drug price regulation
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • sanctuary cities
  • public campaign finance
  • Edward Snowden
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • felony voting rights

 

POPULIST

A populist supports…

  • death penalty
  • obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • border wall
  • Common Core
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture techniques (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • climate change regulations
  • clean alternative energy

A populist opposes…

  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • planned parenthood funding
  • sanctuary cities
  • Edward Snowden
  • fracking
  • oil drilling
  • felony voting rights

 

 

DEMOCRAT

A democrat supports…

  • protection of social programs
  • consumer protection programs
  • workplace safety regulations
  • equal opportunity and racial equality
  • regulation against pollution in the environment
  • clean alternative energy
  • scientific consensus on climate change
  • cap-and-trade policies
  • abortion rights
  • same-sex marriage
  • Planned Parenthood funding
  • Obamacare
  • drug price regulation
  • minimum wage
  • welfare
  • corporate tax
  • estate tax
  • sanctuary cities
  • Common Core
  • gun control
  • public campaign finance
  • Edward Snowden
  • affirmative action
  • mandatory vaccinations
  • GMO labels
  • felony voting rights

A democrat opposes…

  • death penalty
  • border wall
  • Syrian refugee immigration ban
  • military spending
  • torture (such as waterboarding)
  • NSA surveillance
  • War on Drugs
  • USA Patriot Act
  • fracking
  • oil drilling

Why We Should Abolish Compulsory Schooling

criticalthinkers

(source)

The problem with compulsory schooling is that it’s authoritarian and ineffective as a method of educating individuals:

  1. It violates liberty for parents and children
  2. It teaches authoritarianism as a way to get what you want and is undemocratic
  3. Intelligence cannot be obtained through force
  4. It produces a population of passive, obedient workers and consumers
  5. It’s a surveillance state environment
  6. It’s classist

 

1. It violates liberty for parents and children…

There is no choice in the matter if school is compulsory. You go to school or you (or the parent) get a fine, community service, or even jail time. Sometimes a court will order mandatory counseling, parenting classes, “support groups”, or alternative schools.

When I was reading about truancy laws, almost every source I read had a bias that you were a parents who wanted to learn how to make your kid go to school, and that if you just obeyed, you wouldn’t have anything to worry about.

It reminded me of when the NSA wiretapping program was found out. A common argument at the time was that if you had nothing to hide, you have no business worrying about the wiretapping program.

 

2. It teaches authoritarianism as a way to get what you want, and is undemocratic…

  1. there is a central authority (such as a teacher, school administrator, adults, etc.)
  2. limited political freedoms (such as when you can speak, what you can say, when you can go to the bathroom, etc.)
  3. an emotional basis of legitimacy (“because I said so”)
  4. political opposition suppression (asking “why” it is necessary to follow a procedure is not tolerated)

 

3. Intelligence cannot be obtained through force…

Children and young adults are given far too many arbitrary assortments of subjects to grasp. For 20 minutes you will learn fractions, then a bell rings and before you can finish your thought process, it’s time to read about the Vikings for another 20 minutes. And did you know the Earth’s lithosphere is composed of 7-8 major plates?

This fights against the natural process of learning. Learning is not completed in uniformly structured random chunks. That would be like learning to cook by following the directions on a collage of cut and pasted recipe parts.

The most common argument I see people state in criticism of not having compulsory schooling is, “how will anyone learn reading, writing, and arithmetic?”

The truth is that reading, writing and arithmetic can be taught in a very short amount of time. Some say around 100 hours but I haven’t found any hard evidence for the 100 hour number so I’m skeptical.

What’s not learned in around 100 hours is intelligence. Intelligence cannot be achieved through threats (bad grades, taking things away, low test scores).

The way formal schooling is set up, 30-40 children are emotionally and intellectually dependent on 1 adult per classroom. A child cannot even go to the bathroom without asking permission and getting a bureaucratic slip of paper signed by an authority first.

This is done in the name of safety.

But how much liberty are you willing to give up in the name of safety? Plenty of things are dangerous that we do every day without thought that could potentially be banned in the name of safety. Going to the bathroom has to be the least dangerous.

As far as intellectual dependence, a student’s growth is stunted because he or she will have a task, say, adding up numbers, and won’t be allowed to continue learning further without the authority’s approval first. This start and stop method of learning keeps everyone at the same basic level. Whereas, if the environment were more free, a student would be able to add up the numbers, and when they are finished, look on to the next task or page, and work as fast or slow as they need to.

There is a false assumption that has no evidence for it, that without Big Brother compulsory schooling, everyone would fall behind and be illiterate. I argue that compulsory schooling is what is making everyone fall behind and remain illiterate far more than without compulsory schooling.

Imagine 2 students. One is 5 years old and the other is 9 years old. They both learn to read at the same time, different ages. By age 13, they can both read exactly the same level and it’s not apparent what age they first learned to read.

However, in compulsory school, we put the 5 year old in the “gifted” program and the 9 year old in special ed.

The truth is that not everyone learns how to read or even should learn how to read at the same age. 

Just like how children physically grow at different rates, we don’t lengthen their limbs with braces if they’re not 3ft tall by a certain age, so we shouldn’t force children to read according to their age average.

 

4. It produces a population of passive, obedient workers and consumers

In classrooms around the country, there is the authority (teacher) and the subjects (students). The authority talks at the subjects and disseminates information. The subjects passively consume this information as if watching television.

There is no engagement. No dialogue. No democracy.

Imagine if you were in a conversation and the other person expected and enforced that you do not speak the entire time while they drone on for hours. You would probably have a hard time paying attention the full amount of time, right?

Why do we expect different of children who are still developmentally learning skills like attention?

Every breath in a classroom is regulated and surveilled, unless, however, you’re working diligently. There is no room for human behavior. No wonder status quo schools are rampant with behavioral problems from their students. They are subconsciously, and naturally rebelling against oppression.

Asking “why” is not tolerated. There simply isn’t time. Subjects are expected to simply accept that the pilgrims came to America, the Native Americans died from smallpox, and then what was left of them gathered together for a peaceful meal that we now have a holiday for.

If anyone told you a story as disjointed as this, you would not be wrong to ask for clarification, but we set a double standard with children, who we accept as having no rights and everyone is fine with that.

I disagree. Children deserve rights.

But this is the world we live in. School prepares from a very young age, compliance or consequences for being anything other than passive, obedient workers and consumers.

 

5. It’s a surveillance state environment

Imagine working in an environment where you had to ask permission of your boss in order to use the bathroom. But again, we accept as a society that children deserve no rights.

There is no trust of children all in the name of keeping them safe. It has created a nanny state in our schools where children are taught to be helpless and at the mercy of their authority figures.

 

6. It’s classist

What would you think if you went to work and you were divided into groups by age?

It is arbitrary to sort people into classes by age and teach to them according to that standard. Not everyone follows a neat and tidy age appropriate timeline to learning and that doesn’t make them deficient in some way.

Now I’d like to bring up the subject of grades. The U.S. has an obsession with quantifying everything and finds it uneasy not to. After all, how else will you be able to tell if something is going right or wrong?!

In the name of efficiency, we give children grades of A through F, or percentages of 0%-100% on just about everything you could possibly conceive. The students who achieve closer to an A or 100% are rewarded and treated better by the authority figure than those who achieve closer to the other end of the spectrum. This affects both parties self-esteem.

Now imagine a system where we didn’t numerically quantify the success or failure of a child. How would we be able to tell their success or failure then?

We would have to rethink things into a form other than success or failure of a child. For example, if a child finishes a book, that is a success. In this instance, we no longer need to determine that the child failed because they read 4 pages instead of 6. We can use common sense to determine that a book was read independently and therefore, is a success. We would have to eliminate the concept of a child’s failure and come to grips with using human judgement with all its flaws.

 

THE SOLUTION:

So what do we do to have an educated populace of citizens besides compulsory schooling?

Children would learn the way they did before compulsory schooling: with an active role in their community and returning to spending precious time with their families.

What I mean by community in this sense, is not the same as a network. Networks are what we have currently have in place. Networks are shallow relationships based on what you can get from each other. Community means “a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.

For example, a single alternative (of many potential alternatives) to compulsory schooling could be the following loose “curriculum” of natural life experiences:

  • play
  • household responsibilities
  • personal interests and curiosity
  • internships and work experience
  • travel
  • books
  • elective classes
  • family
  • mentors
  • social interaction

Traditional schooling takes away time that would normally have been contributed to participating and building the community and family. This form of “unschooling” would allow children and young adults to get back to those roots and become whole individuals and society members moreso than if they were sitting in a classroom the majority of the day.

Best 12th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

12th grade

1. personal finance

Get a Financial Life: Personal Finance In Your Twenties and Thirties

Personal Finance Workbook For Dummies

2. home repair

New Fix-It-Yourself Manual: How to Repair, Clean, and Maintain Anything and Everything In and Around Your Home

3. car repair

Auto Repair For Dummies

4. credit

Repair Your Credit Like the Pros: How credit attorneys and certified consultants legally delete bad credit and restore your good name

5. finding a job

What Color Is Your Parachute? 2017: A Practical Manual for Job-Hunters and Career-Changers

6. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

7. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

8. business

Small Time Operator: How to Start Your Own Business, Keep Your Books, Pay Your Taxes, and Stay Out of Trouble (Small Time Operator: How to Start Your … Keep Yourbooks, Pay Your Taxes, & Stay Out…)

Start Your Own Business, Sixth Edition: The Only Startup Book You’ll Ever Need

The Business Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

9. accounting

The Accounting Game: Basic Accounting Fresh from the Lemonade Stand

Accounting Made Simple: Accounting Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Accounting Workbook For Dummies

10. career paths

Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type

11. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

12. teaching (education)

Teaching: Ultimate Teaching Techniques! – Teach Like A Champion, Grab Your Students’ Attention And Engagement, Supercharge Their Learning, and Transform … Creativity, Productivity, Self Confidence)

13. music (playing)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

piano stand

piano bench

pedal

14. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

15. fine arts (painting)

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 Pack – 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

16. applied arts (printmaking)

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – woodcarving tools

           StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – wood

           12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

           Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

17. design (user experience)

Don’t Make Me Think, Revisited: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability (3rd Edition) (Voices That Matter)

Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook

18. medicine

Medicine: The Definitive Illustrated History

19. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Calculus Workbook For Dummies

19. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. history (world)

Timelines of History by DK

National Geographic Almanac of World History

History: From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

21. languages (english)

http://thegreatestbooks.org/

Linguistics For Dummies

The Literature Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

22. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

23. philosophy (ethics)

Philosophy 101: From Plato and Socrates to Ethics and Metaphysics, an Essential Primer on the History of Thought (Adams 101)

Philosophy & Ethics For Dummies 2 eBook Bundle: Philosophy For Dummies & Ethics For Dummies

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Best 11th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

11th grade

1. romantic relationships

How to Be an Adult in Relationships: The Five Keys to Mindful Loving

2. the healthcare system

The Health Care Handbook: A Clear and Concise Guide to the United States Health Care System

3. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

4. first aid

(I recommend getting certified by a professional)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

5. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

6. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

7. negotiation/debate

Thank You For Arguing, Revised and Updated Edition: What Aristotle, Lincoln, And Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion

8. accounting

The Accounting Game: Basic Accounting Fresh from the Lemonade Stand

Accounting Made Simple: Accounting Explained in 100 Pages or Less

Accounting Workbook For Dummies

9. career paths

Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type

10. teaching (education)

Teaching: Ultimate Teaching Techniques! – Teach Like A Champion, Grab Your Students’ Attention And Engagement, Supercharge Their Learning, and Transform … Creativity, Productivity, Self Confidence)

11. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

12. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

13. television (creation)

Create Your Own TV Series for the Internet

The Comedy Bible: From Stand-up to Sitcom–The Comedy Writer’s Ultimate “How To” Guide

14. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

15. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

16. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, erasers, sketchpad and pencil sharpener

          33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

          Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Crayola Pip-Squeaks Skinnies Washable Markers, 64 count, Great for Home or School, Perfect Art Tools

     – pens

           Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

17. applied arts (mixed media)

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – glue

          Elmer’s All Purpose School Glue Sticks, Clear, Washable, 4 Pack, 0.24-ounce sticks

          Elmer’s School Glue, Washable, 4 Ounces

          Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

          Cbetter Mini Hot Melt Glue Gun with 25pcs Glue Sticks High Temperature Melting Glue Gun Kit Flexible Trigger for DIY Small Craft Projects&Sealing and Quick Repairs(20-watt, Blue)

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

18. design (graphic)

Creative Workshop: 80 Challenges to Sharpen Your Design Skills

The Non-Designer’s Design Book

19. earth science

Earth Science by Edward J. Tarbuck

20. space science

Space: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

National Geographic Backyard Guide to the Night Sky

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

21. politics (government)

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

The Everything American Government Book: From the Constitution to Present-Day Elections, All You Need to Understand Our Democratic System

22. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

23. history (scientific)

A Short History of Nearly Everything

The Story of Western Science: From the Writings of Aristotle to the Big Bang Theory

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

24. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

25. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

26. philosophy (western schools)

A History of Western Philosophy (Naxos Audiobooks Non-Fiction)

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

27. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Pre-Calculus Workbook For Dummies

Best 10th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

10th grade

1. cooking

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

2. the bible

The Bible: The Epic Miniseries

3. finding a job

What Color Is Your Parachute? 2016: A Practical Manual for Job-Hunters and Career-Changers

4. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

5. skepticism

Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault (Expanded Edition)

6. multicultural theology

World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained

The World’s Religions (Plus) by Huston Smith

The Religions Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

7. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

8. career paths

Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type

10. teaching (education)

Teaching: Ultimate Teaching Techniques! – Teach Like A Champion, Grab Your Students’ Attention And Engagement, Supercharge Their Learning, and Transform … Creativity, Productivity, Self Confidence)

11. music (history)

Music by DK

12. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

13. television (criticism)

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/lists/best-tv-shows-ever-top-819499

14. theater (history)

Living Theater: A History

15. film (animation)

HUE Animation Studio (Blue) for Windows PCs and Apple Mac OS X: complete stop motion animation kit with camera, software and book

16. fine arts (photography)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Photoshop CC + Lightroom) Prepaid Membership 12 Month (Download)

Photography Photo Portrait Studio 600W Day Light Umbrella Continuous Lighting Kit by LimoStudio LMS103

The Photographer’s Playbook: 307 Assignments and Ideas

Digital Photography Complete Course

Digital Photography Workbook For Dummies

(use camera on phone)

17. applied arts (architecture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Chief Architect Home Designer Essentials 2017

LEGO Architecture 21024 Louvre Building Kit

LEGO Architecture Lincoln Memorial Model Kit

Archidoodle: The Architect’s Activity Book

– materials

     – eraser

          Paper Mate Pink Pearl Premium Erasers, Large, 3-Count

     – pencil sharpener

          Prismacolor Scholar Pencil Sharpener

     – graphite pencil

          Derwent Graphic Drawing Pencils, Medium, Metal Tin, 12 Count (34214)

     – fine line pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

      – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

      – brushes

           Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

      – scale rule

           Timely Expanded House Plan Template (32T)

      – set square

           325mm Hypotenuse Metric Professional Geometry Set Square Drawing Drafting Triangle with Grip

      – circle template

           Westcott LetterCraft Large and Small Circles Template (T-831)

18. design (fashion)

Fashion Design Workshop: Stylish step-by-step projects and drawing tips for up-and-coming designers (Walter Foster Studio)

Essentials Fashion Sketchbook (366 Figure Templates to create your own designs!) Fashion Sketchpad

19. computer science

Cracking the Coding Interview: 189 Programming Questions and Solutions

20. chemistry

Chemistry For Dummies

Chemistry Workbook for Dummies

21. the law

Law 101: Everything You Need to Know About American Law

Law For Dummies

22. history (political)

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy

On Politics: A History of Political Thought: From Herodotus to the Present (2 Vol. Set) by Alan Ryan

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

23. languages (foreign)

– french

Living Language French, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My French Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– spanish

Living Language Spanish, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Spanish Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– japanese

Living Language Japanese, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Japanese Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

24. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

25. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Trigonometry Workbook For Dummies

Best 9th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

9th grade

1. personal finance

Get a Financial Life: Personal Finance In Your Twenties and Thirties

Personal Finance Workbook For Dummies

2. study skills

10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades (While Studying Less)

– materials

Blue Sky 2016-2017 Academic Year Weekly & Monthly Planner, Wire-O Binding, Charcoal Cover, 5″ x 8″ (18732)

3. social skills

Improve Your Social Skills by Daniel Wendler

4. romantic relationships

How to Be an Adult in Relationships: The Five Keys to Mindful Loving

5. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

6. first aid

(I recommend getting certified by a professional)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

7. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

8. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

9. negotiation/debate

Thank You For Arguing, Revised and Updated Edition: What Aristotle, Lincoln, And Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion

10. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

11. music (theory)

Alfred’s Basic Piano Library Flash Cards, Bk 2 & 3

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory, Bk 2

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory, Bk 1-3: Ear Training 2 CDs

Music Theory for Guitarists: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know But Were Afraid to Ask (Guitar Method)

12. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

13. television (creation)

Create Your Own TV Series for the Internet

The Comedy Bible: From Stand-up to Sitcom–The Comedy Writer’s Ultimate “How To” Guide

14. theater (playwriting)

The Dramatic Writer’s Companion: Tools to Develop Characters, Cause Scenes, and Build Stories (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing)

15. film (theory)

Cinematography: Theory and Practice: Image Making for Cinematographers and Directors

16. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery sculpting tools

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

17. design (product)

Product Design (Portfolio) by Alex Milton

18. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

19. biology

Biology for Dummies

Biology Workbook For Dummies

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. economics

The Economics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Economic Facts and Fallacies

21. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

22. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

23. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

24. philosophy (metaphysics)

Philosophy 101: From Plato and Socrates to Ethics and Metaphysics, an Essential Primer on the History of Thought (Adams 101)

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

25. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

26. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Algebra II Workbook For Dummies

Best 8th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

8th grade

1. cooking

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

2. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

3. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

carving wood

Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

6. music (composing)

Finale 2014 Music Notation Software – Academic Edition

The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Music Composition (Idiot’s Guides)

7. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

8. television (criticism)

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/lists/best-tv-shows-ever-top-819499

9. theater (acting)

Reverse Charades

The Acting Bible: The Complete Resource for Aspiring Actors

10. film (criticism)

The Great Movies IV  by Roger Ebert

The Movie Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

11. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

          Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 PACK – 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

12. applied arts (printmaking)

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – knife kit

           StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – woodcut

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

          Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

13. physics

Basic Physics: A Self-Teaching Guide by Karl F. Kuhn

Physics Workbook For Dummies

14. sociology

The Sociology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Sociology: A Brief Introduction by Richard T. Schaefer

15. history (economic)

A History of Economic Theory and Method by Robert B. Ekelund Jr.

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

16. languages (english)

http://thegreatestbooks.org/

The Literature Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Linguistics For Dummies

17. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

18. philosophy (political)

On Politics: A History of Political Thought: From Herodotus to the Present (2 Vol. Set) by Alan Ryan

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

19. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Geometry Workbook For Dummies

Best 7th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

7th grade

1. study skills

10 Steps to Earning Awesome Grades (While Studying Less)

– materials

Blue Sky 2016-2017 Academic Year Weekly & Monthly Planner, Wire-O Binding, Charcoal Cover, 5″ x 8″ (18732)

2. social skills

Improve Your Social Skills by Daniel Wendler

3. survival skills

Outdoor Life: The Ultimate Survival Manual: 333 Skills that Will Get You Out Alive

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

5. first aid

(getting certified by a professional recommended)

Basic First Aid Training video

First Aid Kit Hard Red Case 326 Pieces Exceeds OSHA and ANSI Guidelines

6. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

7. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

8. music (recording)

– audio recording software

Propellerhead Reason 7 (Music Recording & Production Studio)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

piano stand

pedal

– cable

USB Guitar Cable VAlinks USB Interface Male to 6.35mm 1/4″ Mono Male Electric Guitar Cable Studio Audio Cable Connector Cords Adapter for Instruments Recording Singing- 3m/10ft

– microphone

Floureon BM-800 Condenser Sound Studio Recording Broadcasting Microphone + Shock Mount Holder Blue

– headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M20x Professional Headphones

9. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

10. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, erasers, sketchpad, drawing pencils, and pencil sharpener

           33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

    – pastels

         Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Crayola Pip-Squeaks Skinnies Washable Markers, 64 count, Great For Home or School, Perfect Art Tools

     – pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

11. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

      – scissors

           Scotch Precision Ultra Edge Scissors, 8 Inch, 3-Pack (1458-3AMZ)

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – glue

          Elmer’s All Purpose School Glue Sticks, Clear, Washable, 4 Pack, 0.24-ounce sticks

          Elmer’s School Glue, Washable, 4 Ounces

          Gorilla Original Gorilla Glue, 4 oz., Brown

          CCbetter Mini Hot Melt Glue Gun with 25pcs Glue Sticks High Temperature Melting Glue Gun Kit Flexible Trigger for DIY Small Craft Projects&Sealing and Quick Repairs(20-watt, Blue)

     – paper towels

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – sandpaper

     – spray bottle

     – magazines

12. psychology

Psych 101: Psychology Facts, Basics, Statistics, Tests, and More! (Adams 101)

Psychology by David G. Myers

The Psychology Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

13. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

14. history (modern)

History: Modern History in 50 Events: From the Industrial Revolution to the Present (World History, History Books, People History) (History in 50 Events Series Book 7)

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

15. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

16. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

17. philosophy (logic)

An Introduction to Philosophical Logic by Anthony C. Grayling

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

18. mathematics

All the Math You’ll Ever Need: A Self-Teaching Guide

Algebra I Workbook For Dummies

Best 6th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

6th grade

1. cooking

The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science

2. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

3. inventing

Kids Inventing! A Handbook for Young Inventors

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

carving wood

6. music (playing)

– percussion

Gammon Percussion Full Size Complete Adult 5 Piece Drum Set with Cymbals Stands Stool and Sticks

– brass

Mendini by Cecilio MTT-L Trumpet, Gold, Bb

– wind instruments

Lazarro Professional Silver Nickel Closed Hole C Flute for Band, Orchestra, with Case, Care Kit, Gloves and Warranty

OR

Legacy CL750 Intermediate Clarinet with Deluxe Carrying Case

OR

Mendini by Cecilio MAS-L+92D+PB Gold Lacquer E Flat Alto Saxophone with Tuner, Case, Mouthpiece, 10 Reeds and More

– stringed instruments

Cecilio CVN-300 Solidwood Ebony Fitted Violin with D’Addario Prelude Strings, Size 4/4 (Full Size)

OR

Epiphone Les Paul Electric Guitar Player Package, Vintage Sunburst

OR

Jasmine S35 Acoustic Guitar, Natural

OR

Crescent Electric Bass Guitar Starter Kit – Translucent Green Color (Includes CrescentTM Digital E-Tuner)

– electronic instruments

Williams Legato 88-Key Digital Piano

7. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Women’s Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

8. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

9. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

10. fine arts (photography)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Photoshop CC + Lightroom) Prepaid Membership 12 Month (Download)

Photography Photo Portrait Studio 600W Day Light Umbrella Continuous Lighting Kit by LimoStudio LMS103

The Photographer’s Playbook: 307 Assignments and Ideas

Digital Photography Complete Course by DK

Digital Photography Workbook For Dummies

(use cell phone camera)

11. applied arts (architecture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Chief Architect Home Designer Essentials 2017

The LEGO Architect

LEGO Architecture White House (21006)

Archidoodle: The Architect’s Activity Book

– materials

     – eraser

          Paper Mate Pink Pearl Premium Erasers, Large, 3-Count

     – pencil sharpener

          Prismacolor Scholar Pencil Sharpener

     – graphite pencil

          Derwent Graphic Drawing Pencils, Medium, Metal Tin, 12 Count (34214)

     – fine line pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – brushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – scale rule

          Timely Expanded House Plan Template (32T)

     – set square

          325mm Hypotenuse Metric Professional Geometry Set Square Drawing Drafting Triangle with Grip

     – circle template

          Westcott LetterCraft Large and Small Circles Template (T-831)

12. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

13. earth science

Earth Science by Edward J. Tarbuck

14. space science

Space: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

National Geographic Backyard Guide to the Night Sky

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

15. politics (government)

The Politics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Understanding the Political World: A Comparative Introduction to Political Science

The Everything American Government Book: From the Constitution to Present-Day Elections, All You Need to Understand Our Democratic System

16. history (natural)

Natural History (Smithsonian) by DK

The History Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

17. languages (foreign)

– french

Living Language French, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My French Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– spanish

Living Language Spanish, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Spanish Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– japanese

Living Language Japanese, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning

My Japanese Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

18. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

19. philosophy (history)

History of Philosophy: Overview of: Eastern Philosophy, Western Philosophy, and the Most Important Thinkers through the Ages (René Descartes, Kierkegaard, … Rousseau, Christian Philosophy Book 1)

A History of Philosophy Book Series (9 Books) by Frederick Copleston

The Philosophy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

20. mathematics

Basic Math and Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies

Best 5th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

5th grade

1. mental health

– activity therapy

The CBT Art Activity Book: 100 illustrated handouts for creative therapeutic work

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

The Expressive Arts Activity Book: A Resource for Professionals

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Workbook For Dummies

– dialectical behavior therapy

DBT® Skills Training Handouts and Worksheets

– meditation

guided meditations
https://www.youtube.com/user/TheHonestGuys/videos?view=0&flow=grid&sort=p

Buddha in Blue Jeans: An Extremely Short Simple Zen Guide to Sitting Quietly

2. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

3. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

4. sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

6. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

7. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

8. theater (history)

Living Theater: A History

9. film (animation)

HUE Animation Studio (Blue) for Windows PCs and Apple Mac OS X: complete stop motion animation kit with camera, software and book

11. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

12. chemistry

Thames & Kosmos CHEM C3000 (V 2.0)

Chemistry For Dummies

Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

13. the law

Law 101: Everything You Need to Know About American Law

Law For Dummies

The Crime Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

14. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Geography: A Visual Encyclopedia by DK

Geography of the World by DK Publishing

15. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

16. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

Best 4th Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

4th grade

1. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

2. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

3. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

4. woodwork

The Complete Manual of Woodworking: A Detailed Guide to Design, Techniques, and Tools for the Beginner and Expert

– materials

 200mm Silverline Woodwork Chisel Set

 carving wood

5. music (history)

Music by DK

6. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Womens Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

7. theater (playwriting)

The Dramatic Writer’s Companion: Tools to Develop Characters, Cause Scenes, and Build Stories (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing)

8. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

     – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

     – canvas

          Artlicious – Canvas Panels 12 Pack- 8″X10″ Super Value Pack Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

9. applied arts (printmaking)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

– materials

     – woodcut

          StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

     – wood panels

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving and etching

           Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

           Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

10. biology

Biology for Dummies

Biology Workbook For Dummies

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

11. economics

The Economics Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Economic Facts and Fallacies

12. languages (english)

http://time.com/100-best-young-adult-books/

Linguistics For Dummies

13. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

Best 3rd Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

3rd grade

1. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeautic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

2. time management

Eat That Frog!: 21 Great Ways to Stop Procrastinating and Get More Done in Less Time

3. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

4. music (theory)

Piano Cards: Beginner Level 1

Alfred’s Essentials of Music Theory: A Complete Self-Study Course for All Musicians (Book & 2 CDs)

Music Theory for Guitarists: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know But Were Afraid to Ask (Guitar Method)

5. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

6. theater (acting)

Reverse Charades

The Acting Bible: The Complete Resource for Aspiring Actors

7. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

– materials

     – graphite pencils, charcoal, erasers, pencil sharpener, and sketchpad

          33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

          Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – markers

          Magicdo 24Cols Watercolor Pen, Stamp Marker pen, Watercolor Marker pen with Art Seal, Non-Toxic& Washable Markers for Kids and Adults Coloring Book, Doodling, Drawing

     – pen

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

  – sketch book

     Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

8. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

          Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

      – stencils

          24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

9. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip Bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall Planting & Spring Blooms

Garlic Bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb For Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

10. geography

Geography Coloring Book

Brainbox All Around The World

National Geographic Kids World Atlas

11. languages (linguistics)

Linguistics For Dummies

12. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

Best 2nd Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

2nd grade

1. physical health

How Not to Die: Discover the Foods Scientifically Proven to Prevent and Reverse Disease

Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain

Disease: The Story of Disease and Mankind’s Continuing Struggle Against It

2. self-defense

(I think this is best done in a class by an expert so I don’t have any resources for it)

3. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

4. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

5. music (composing)

Finale 2014 Music Notation Software – Academic Edition

The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Music Composition (Idiot’s Guides)

6. dance (history)

American Dance: The Complete Illustrated History

7. fine arts (photography)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan (Photoshop CC + Lightroom) Prepaid Membership 12 Month (Download)

Photography Photo Portrait Studio 600W Day Light Umbrella Continuous Lighting Kit by LimoStudio LMS103

The Photographer’s Playbook: 307 Assignments and Ideas

Digital Photography Complete Course by DK

Digital Photograpy Workbook For Dummies

(use camera on phone)

8. applied arts (architecture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Chief Architect Home Designer Essentials 2017

The LEGO Architect

LEGO Architecture New York City 21028

Archidoodle: The Architect’s Activity Book

– materials

    – eraser

          Paper Mate Pink Pearl Premium Erasers, Large, 3-Count

     – pencil sharpener

          Prismacolor Scholar Pencil Sharpener

     – graphite pencil

          Derwent Graphic Drawing Pencils, Medium, Metal Tin, 12 Count (34214)

     – fine line pens

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – brushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – scale rule

          Timely Expanded House Plan Template (32T)

     – set square

          325mm Hypotenuse Metric Professional Geometry Set Square Drawing Drafting Triangle with Grip

     – circle template

          Westcott LetterCraft Large and Small Circles Template (T-831)

9. mathematics

Basic Math and Pre-Algebra Workbook For Dummies

Brain Quest Workbook, Grade 2

10. languages (foreign)

– french

Living Language French, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning 

My French Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

– spanish

Living Language Spanish, Complete Edition: Beginner through advanced course, including 3 coursebooks, 9 audio CDs, and free online learning 

My Spanish Coach – Nintendo DS

Nintendo DS

11. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

Best 1st Grade Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

1st Grade

1. manners

365 Manners Kids Should Know: Games, Activities, and Other Fun Ways to Help Children and Teens Learn Etiquette

2. gun safety

Don’t Play With Guns Coloring & Activity Book

3. hygiene

Germs Are Not for Sharing (Board Book) (Best Behavior Series)

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeautic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

5. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

6. leadership/management

How To Win Friends and Influence People

7. music (recording)

– audio recording software

Propellerhead Reason 7 (Music Recording & Production Studio)

– percussion

Mendini by Cecilio 13 Inch 3-Piece Kids / Junior Drum Set with Adjustable Throne, Cymbal, Pedal & Drumsticks, Metallic Blue, MJDS-1-BL

– wind instruments

Set of 3 Music 1. Clarinet 2. Saxophone 3. Trumpet, Combo with over 10 Color Coded Teaching Songs

– stringed instruments

New 30″ Kids Black Electric Guitar With Amp & Much More Guitar Combo Accessory Kit

– electronic instruments

RockJam 561 Electronic 61 Key Digital Piano Keyboard SuperKit with Stand, Stool, Headphones, & Includes Piano Maestro Teaching App with 30 Songs

– cable

USB Guitar Cable VAlinks USB Interface Male to 6.35mm 1/4″ Mono Male Electric Guitar Cable Studio Audio Cable Connector Cords Adapter for Instruments Recording Singing- 3m/10ft

Hosa MID-320BK 5-Pin DIN to 5-Pin DIN MIDI Cable, 20 feet

– microphone

Floureon BM-800 Condenser Sound Studio Recording Broadcasting Microphone + Shock Mount Holder Blue

– headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M20x Professional Headphones

8. dance (choreography)

So You Think You Can Dance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

– clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

ballet
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CkO4s1vj2Y

contemporary dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIV0TCgUeYE

jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfiNcwvt7PQ

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3y17D_K9Zw

folk dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYjYVQVf4UE

techno dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLRKdR4qLwQ

k pop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqZFU_dUr8

religious dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-HzEVk4pg4

9. theater (scenic design)

Fundamentals of Theatrical Design: A Guide to the Basics of Scenic, Costume, and Lighting Design

10. film (filmmaking)

How to Shoot Video That Doesn’t Suck: Advice to Make Any Amateur Look Like a Pro

– equipment

Beginner Filmmaker Starter Kit for Canon EOS DSLR 5D Mark II III 6D 7D 7D II 70D 60D T6s T6i T5i T4i T3i SL1

(use cell phone camera)

11. fine arts (sculpture)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Sculpture: From Antiquity to the Present Day

– materials

     – clay

          Polyform Sculpey Original Polymer Clay, 1.75-Pound, White

     – pottery

          2013newestseller 10PCS Wooden Clay Sculpture knife Pottery Sharpen Modeling Tools Set

12. earth science

Janice VanCleave’s Earth Science for Every Kid: 101 Easy Experiments that Really Work

How the World Works: A Hands-On Guide to Our Amazing Planet

13. space science

The Magic School Bus: The Secrets of Space

Space! by DK

The Astronomy Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

14. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)

Vocabulary Packets: Greek & Latin Roots: Ready-to-Go Learning Packets That Teach 40 Key Roots and Help Students Unlock the Meaning of Dozens and Dozens of Must-Know Vocabulary Words

15. writing (journalism)

You Can’t Make This Stuff Up: The Complete Guide to Writing Creative Nonfiction–from Memoir to Literary Journalism and Everything in Between

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

Best Kindergarten Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

Kindergarten

1. inventing

My Crazy Inventions Sketchbook: 50 Awesome Drawing Activities for Young Inventors

2. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

3. music (playing)

     – percussion

          VTech KidiBeats Kids Drum Set

     – wind instruments

          Set of 3 Music 1. Clarinet 2. Saxophone 3. Trumpet, Combo with over 10 Color Coded Teaching Songs

     – stringed instruments

          New 30″ Kids Black Electric Guitar With Amp & Much More Guitar Combo Accessory Kit

     – electronic instruments

          RockJam 561 Electronic 61 Key Digital Piano Keyboard SuperKit with Stand, Stool, Headphones, & Includes Piano Maestro Teaching App with 30 Songs

4. dance (performance)

So You Think You Can Dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DctLJHiJgOI

     – clothing

Capezio Girls’ Boy Cut Low Rise Short

Danskin Girls Student Footed Tight

Capezio Girls’ Classic Short Sleeve Leotard

 

concert dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOg5Zf79dcs

latin/rhythm dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBrK9q6Nmu0

swing dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dUS1QQhc324

traditional jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgErNADPalU

ballroom jazz dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1rmktHvvs0

freestyle dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT7kK5Gygk

hip hop dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2H5-BIeKri4

disco dance
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEyquJMl3tA

5. puppetry

ALEX Toys Little Hands Paper Bag Puppets

6. film (animation)

HUE Animation Studio (Blue) for Windows PCs and Apple Mac OS X: complete stop motion animation kit with camera, software and book

7. fine arts (painting)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Daily Painting: Paint Small and Often To Become a More Creative, Productive, and Successful Artist

– materials

    – paint kit

          US Art Supply 21-Piece Acrylic Painting Table Easel Set with, 12-Tubes Acrylic Painting Colors, 11″x14″ Stretched Canvas, 6 Artist Brushes, Plastic Palette with 10 Wells

      – canvas

           Artlicious – CANVAS PANELS 12 PACK – 8″X10″ SUPER VALUE PACK Artist Canvas Panel Boards for Painting

8. applied arts (printmaking)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

The Printmaking Bible: The Complete Guide to Materials and Techniques

– materials

    – woodcarving tool chisels

          StarSide 12pcs Sculpting Art Hand Woodcarving Tool Chisels Knife Kit For Basic Woodcut DIY Tools

  – woodcut

          12 Baltic Birch Plywood Woodcut Painting Encaustic Panels Wood 8″ X 6″

     – engraving

          Royal Brush COPF17 Copper 8″X10″ Engraving Art Hummingbird

     – screenprinting

          Speedball Super Value Fabric Screen Printing Kit

9. agronomy (agricultural science)

– producing plants

Giant Sunflower Kit – Hundreds of Jumbo Sun Flower Seeds for Planting – Yeilds Edible Seed

Tulip bulbs – 12 Pink Impression Darwin Tulip – Bulb Size 11/12 cm – Fall planting & spring blooms

Garlic bulb (3 Pack), Fresh California Softneck Garlic Bulb for Planting and Growing Your Own Garlic

Grow 5 Herbs from Seed with Nature’s Blossom Plant Kit – All You Need to Have your own Organic Herb Garden at Home

– plant education

American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers

10. chemistry

The Magic School Bus – Chemistry Lab

Chemistry For Dummies

Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

11. languages (english)

http://time.com/100-best-childrens-books/

Linguistics For Dummies

12. writing (non-fiction)

Four Seasons of Creative Writing: 1,000 Prompts to Stop Writer’s Block (Story Prompts for Journaling, Blogging and Beating Writer’s Block)

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

Best Preschool Curriculum Materials and Resources

This list is what I would imagine my dream curriculum would have been for myself when I was growing up. If I’d gotten to choose my education, I would like to have drawn from these subjects and resources.

 

Preschool

1. manners

Blunders Preschool Manner Mats

2. gun safety

Don’t Play With Guns Coloring & Activity Book

3. hygiene

Germs Are Not for Sharing (Board Book) (Best Behavior Series)

4. mental health

– activity therapy

The Big Book of Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

The Big Book of EVEN MORE Therapeutic Activity Ideas for Children and Teens: Inspiring Arts-Based Activities and Character Education Curricula

– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)

Creative Family Therapy Techniques: Play, Art, and Expressive Activities to Engage Children in Family Sessions

– cognitive behavioral therapy

Think Good – Feel Good: A Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People

– dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Children & Adolescents

– meditation

Sitting Still Like a Frog: Mindfulness Exercises for Kids (and Their Parents)

5. sports

The Ultimate Homeschool Physical Education Game Book: Fun & Easy-To-Use Games & Activities To Help You Teach Your Children Fitness, Movement & Sport Skills

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sports

6. music (listening)

best of classical
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_50_Greatest_Pieces_of_Classical_Music

best of opera
http://www.ranker.com/list/best-opera-songs/bustermcdermott

best of electronic
http://www.laweekly.com/music/the-20-best-dance-music-tracks-in-history-6251507

best of folk music
http://www.npr.org/2009/06/19/105677068/folk-alleys-100-most-essential-folk-songs

best of pop
http://www.billboard.com/articles/list/2155531/the-hot-100-all-time-top-songs

best of blues
https://mygreatmusicdebate.com/my-top-100-blues-songs-of-all-time/

best of country
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/100-greatest-country-songs-of-all-time-20140601/1-johnny-cash-i-walk-the-line-1956-0196051

best of hip hop
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-50-greatest-hip-hop-songs-of-all-time-20121205/grandmaster-flash-and-the-furious-five-the-message-19691231

best of jazz
http://www.jazz24.org/jazz-100/

best of reggae
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Reggae.html

best of r&b
http://www.billboard.com/charts/greatest-r-b-hip-hop-songs

best of rock
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-500-greatest-songs-of-all-time-20110407/bob-dylan-like-a-rolling-stone-20110516

best of alternative
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-Alternative.html

best of metal
http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/the-100-greatest-metal-albums-of-all-time-w486923/black-sabbath-paranoid-1970-w486954

best of punk
https://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-punk.html

best of progressive
http://www.popmatters.com/feature/141547-best-25-rock-songs-of-all-time/P4/

best of psychedelic
http://digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_songs-psych.html

 

7. fine arts (drawing)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

How to Draw Cool Stuff: A Drawing Guide for Teachers and Students

– materials

     – graphite

     – charcoal

           33-piece Professional Art Kit – Drawing and Sketch Kit with Pencils, Erasers, Kit Bag and Free Sketchpad – Art Supplies, Drawing Pencils, Graphite Pencils, Pencil Sharpener

     – pastels

           Mungyo Non Toxic Square Chalk, Soft Pastel, 64 Pack, Assorted Colors (B441R078-7003A)

     – marker

          Magicdo 24Cols Watercolor Pen, Stamp Marker pen, Watercolor Marker pen with Art Seal, Non-Toxic& Washable Markers for Kids and Adults Coloring Book, Doodling, Drawing

     – pen

          Sakura 30062 6-Piece Pigma Micron Ink Pen Set, Black

     – sketch book

          Canson Artist Series Universal Sketch Pad, 5.5″X8.5″ Side Wire

8. applied arts (mixed media)

The Art Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

Art: Over 2,500 Works from Cave to Contemporary

Surface Treatment Workshop: Explore 45 Mixed-Media Techniques

– materials

     – eyedropper

          1oz Amber Glass Bottles for Essential Oils with Glass Eye Dropper

     – newspapers or plastic work surface

     – paints

          Apple Barrel Acrylic Paint Set, 18 Piece (2-Ounce), PROMOABI Best Selling Colors I

     – paintbrushes

          Loew-Cornell 245B Brush Set, Pack of 25, Multi Color

     – palette knife

          Uxcell 5-Piece Painting Knife Set

     – stamps

Melissa & Doug Stamp-a-Scene-Fairy Garden

     – stencils

24 Creative Plastic Stencils from Highlights

     – paper towels

     – sandpaper

     – scissors

     – spray bottle

9. biology

Biology for Dummies and Workbook

The Biology Coloring Book

The Science Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained)

10. linguistics

Linguistics For Dummies

Introducing Linguistics: A Graphic Guide

11. writing (fiction)

Writing Fiction For Dummies

LeapFrog LeapReader Reading and Writing System

12th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

12th grade
 
1. personal finance
– financial position
– adequate protection
– tax planning
– investment and accumulation goals
– retirement planning
– estate planning
 
2. home repair
– worn
– damaged
– maintenance
– good operations
– remediation of environmental problems
3. car repair
– oil change
– fluids
– tires
– safety procedures
4. credit
– credit cards
– credit management
– credit scoring
– interest rates
– bank credit
– commerce
– consumer credit
– investment credit
– real estate
 
5. finding a job
– resume
– networking
– referrals
– job boards and career websites
– job fairs
– company websites
– cold calling
– recruitment agencies
– temping and internships
– interview
6. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
7. sports
 
8. business
– forms of ownership
– classifications
– management
– organization and government regulation
9. accounting
– financial
– management
– auditing
– information systems
– tax
10. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
11. leadership/management
– planning
– organizing
– coordinating
– commanding
– controlling
– interpersonal
– informational
– decision
12. teaching
 (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
13. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
14. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
15. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
16. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
17. design (user experience)
– elements
  – visual design
  – information architecture
  – interaction design
  – usability
  – human-computer interactiono
– general process
– UX deliverables
– designers\
  – graphic designers
  – visual designers
  – interaction
– testing
– benefits
 
18. medicine
– clinical practice
– institutions
  – delivery
– branches
  – basic sciences
  – specialties
  – interdisciplinary fields
– education and legal controls
– medical ethics
– traditional medicine
 
19. mathematics
– quantity
– structure
– space
– change
– foundations and philosophy
– logic
– discrete
– applied
20. psychology
– schools of thought
  – biological
  – behavioral
  – cognitive
  – social
  – existential-humanist
– themes
  – personality
  – unconscious mind
  – motivation
  – development
  – genes and environment
– applications
  – mental testing
  – mental health care
  – education
  – work
  – military and intelligence
  – health, well-being, and social change
– research methods
  – controlled experiments
  – statistical inference
  – technological assays
  – computer simulation
  – animal studies
  – qualitative and descriptive research
– contemporary issues
– ethics
  – humans
  – other animals
21. history (world)
– prehistory
  – early humans
  – rise of civilization
– ancient history
  – timeline
  – cradles of civilization
  – axial age
  – regional empires
  – declines, falls, and resurgence
– post-classical
  – western asia and north africa
  – europe
  – sub-saharan africa
  – south asia
  – east asia
  – central asia
  – southeast asia
  – oceania
  – the americas
– modern
  – early modern period
  – late modern period
  – contemporary history
22. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
23. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific
24. philosophy (ethics)
– meta-ethics
– normative ethics
  – virtue ethics
  – hedonism
  – state consequentialism
  – consequentialism/teleology
  – deontology
  – pragmatic ethics
  – role ethics
  – anarchist ethics
  – postmodern ethics
– applied
  – specific questions
  – particular fields of application
    – bioethics
    – business
    – machine
    – military
    – political
    – public sector
    – publication
    – relational
– moral
  – evolutionary ethics
– descriptive

11th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

11th grade
 
1. romantic relationships
– relationship resources
– relationship restoration
– relationship maintenance
– evidence-based marriage education
2. the healthcare system
– statistics
  – nobel prize
– providers
– facilities
  – physicians
  – medical products, research and development
  – healthcare provider employment in the united states
– spending
– regulation and oversight
  – involved organizations and institutions
  – certificates of need for hospitals
  – licensing of providers
  – quality assurance
– system effectiveness
  – measures of effectiveness
  – compared to other countries
– efficiency
  – third party payment problem and consumer driven insurance
  – overall costs
  – equity
– drug efficacy and safety
  – impact of drug companies
– political issues
  – prescription drug prices
  – debate
– reform
3. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
4. first aid
– airway management
– cardiopulmonary resucitation
– emergency bleeding control
5. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
6. sports
 
7. negotiation/debate
– strategies
  – distributive negotiation
  – integrative negotiation
– elements of negotiation
  – adversary of partner
  – employing an advocate
  – perspective taking for integrative negotiation
  – negotiation styles
  – types of negotiators
  – bad faith negotiation
– emotion
  – affect effect
  – positive affect
  – negative affect
  – conditions of emotion affect
  – effect of partner’s emotions
  – problems with laboratory studies
– team negotiation
– barriers
– tactics
– nonverbal communication
 
8. accounting
– financial
– management
– auditing
– information systems
– tax
9. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
10. teaching (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
11. music (listening)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
12. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
13. television (creation)
 
14. theater (stage design)
 
15. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
16. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
17. applied arts (mixed media)
 
18. design (graphic)
– typography
– page layout
– printmaking
– tools
  – computers and the creative process
19. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
20. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
 
21. politics (government)
– elections
– corruption
– government
– philosophies
– governments of the world
– political issues
– politics by region
– political parties
22. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
23. history (scientific)
– early cultures
  – africa
  – ancient near east
  – greco-roman world
  – india
  – china
– science in the middle ages
  – islamic world
  – europe
– impact of science in europe
  – age of enlightenment
  – romanticism in science
– modern science
  – physics
  – chemistry
  – geology
  – astronomy
  – biology, medicine and genetics
  – ecology
  – political science
  – linguistics
  – economics
  – psychology
  – sociology
  – anthropology
  – emerging disciplines
– academic study
  – theories and sociology of the history of science
  – the plight of many scientific innovators
 
24. languages (linguistics)
– variation and universality
  – lexicon
  – discourse
  – dialect
  – structures
  – relativity
  – style
– approach
  – generative vs. functional theories of lanaguage
  – methodology
  – analysis
  – anthropology
  – sources
– areas of research
  – historical linguistics
  – sociolinguistics
  – developmental linguistics
  – neurolinguistics
– applied
– interdisciplinary fields
  – semiotics
  – language documentation
  – translation
  – biolinguistics
  – clinical
  – computational
  – evolutionary
  – forensic
 
25. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief
26. philosophy (western schools)
– ancient
– medieval
– modern
– contemporary approaches
– analytic
– continental
  – german idealism
  – phenomenology
  – existentialism
– pragmatism
  – thomism
  – marxism
– western philosophical subdisciplines
– philosophy contrasted with other disciplines
  – natural science
  – theology and religious studies
  – mathematics

10th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

10th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. The Bible
– development
– hebrew bible
  – torah
  – nevi’im
  – ketuvim
  – original languages
– septuagint
  – incorporations from theodotion
  – final form
– christian bibles
  – old testament
  – new testament
  – development of the christian canons
– divine inspiration
– versions and translations
– views
  – other religions
  – biblical studies
  – higher criticism
– archaeological and historical research
 
3. finding a job
– resume
– networking
– referrals
– job boards and career websites
– job fairs
– company websites
– cold calling
– recruitment agencies
– temping and internships
– interview
 
4. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
5. skepticism
– legal
– philosophical
– religious
– scientific
6. multicultural theology
– apologetics
– conceptions of god
– eschatology
– existence of god
– opposition to religion
– theism
– theologies
– seminaries
 
7. sports
 
8. career paths
– assessment
– information
– counseling
– education
 
9. teaching (education)
– formal education
  – preschool
  – primary
  – secondary
  – tertiary (higher)
  – vocational
  – special
– educational forms
  – alternative
  – indigenous
  – informal learning
  – self-directed learning
  – open education and electronic technology
– development goals
  – internationalization
  – education and technology in developing countries
  – private vs public funding in developing countries
– educational theory
  – purpose of schools
  – educational psychology
  – the intelligence-education relationship
  – learning modalities
  – philosophy
  – curriculum
  – instruction
– economics of education
 
10. music (history)
– eras of music
  – prehistoric
  – ancient music
  – biblical period
  – early music
– western art music
  – medieval
  – renaissance
  – baroque
  – classical era
  – romantic
  – 20th and 21st century
– classical music outside of europe
  – byzantium
  – asia
  – india
  – china
  – middle east
  – persia
11. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
12. television (criticism)
 
13. theater (history)
– classical and hellenistic greece
– roman
– sanskrit
– chinese
– post-classical in the west
– eastern traditions
14. film (animation)
– traditional
– stop motion
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
– mechanical
15. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
16. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
17. design (fashion)
– structure
– designing a garment
– types of fashion
  – haute couture
  – ready-to-wear
  – mass market
– income
– fashion education
– areas
– world fashion industry
  – american fashion design
  – belgian
  – british
  – canadian
  – french
  – german
  – italian
  – japanese
  – chinese
  – soviet
  – swiss
– terms
 
18. computer science
– theory of computation
– information and coding theory
– algorithms and data structures
– programming language theory
– formal methods
– artificial intelligence
– architecture and engineering
– performance analysis
– graphics and visualization
– security and cryptography
– computational science
– networks
– concurrent, parallel and distributed systems
– databases
– software engineering
 
19. chemistry
– matter
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – mole and amount of substance
– phase
– bonding
– energy
– reaction
– ions and salts
– acidity and basicity
– redox
– equilibrium
– chemical laws
20. the law
– the constitution
– criminal
– taxes
21. history (political)
– antiquity
– medieval islam
– medieval europe
– european renaissance
– european age of enlightenment
– industrialization and modern era
 
22. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
23. writing (journalism)

9th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

9th grade
 
1. personal finance
– financial position
– adequate protection
– tax planning
– investment and accumulation goals
– retirement planning
– estate planning
 
2. study skills
– buzan mind maps
– rehearsal and rote learning
– reading and listening
– flashcard training
– keywords
– visual imagery
– acronyms and mnemonics
– exam strategies
– spacing
– organization and lifestyle changes
– study environment
3. social skills
– coordination
– mentoring
– negotiation
– persuasion
– service orientation
– social perceptiveness
4. romantic relationships
– relationship resources
– relationship restoration
– relationship maintenance
– evidence-based marriage education
 
5. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
6. first aid
– airway management
– cardiopulmonary resucitation
– emergency bleeding control
7. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
8. sports
 
9. negotiation/debate
– strategies
  – distributive negotiation
  – integrative negotiation
– elements of negotiation
  – adversary of partner
  – employing an advocate
  – perspective taking for integrative negotiation
  – negotiation styles
  – types of negotiators
  – bad faith negotiation
– emotion
  – affect effect
  – positive affect
  – negative affect
  – conditions of emotion affect
  – effect of partner’s emotions
  – problems with laboratory studies
– team negotiation
– barriers
– tactics
– nonverbal communication
10. leadership/management
– planning
– organizing
– coordinating
– commanding
– controlling
– interpersonal
– informational
– decision
11. music (theory)
– pitch
– scales and modes
– consonance and dissonance
– rhythm
– melody
– chord
– harmony
– timbre
– texture
– form
– expression
– notation
12. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
13. television (creation)
 
14. theater (playwriting)
– three act structure
– the hero’s journey
– syd field’s paradigm
– the sequence approach
– imagery
– dialogue
– plot
 
15. film (theory)
– apparatus
– auteur
– feminist
– formalist
– genre
– marxist
– philosophy of language film analysis
– psychoanalytic
– screen
– structuralist
 
16. fine arts (sculpture)
– stone
– metal
– glass
– pottery
– wood carving
17. design (product)
– analysis
– concept
– synthesis
– demand pull innovation and invention push innovation
– product design expression
– product design considerations
– trends
 
18. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
19. biology
– cell theory
– evolution
– genetics
– homeostasis
– energy
– structural
– physiological
– research
– systematic
– kingdoms
– ecological and environmental
20. economics
– microeconomics
  – markets
  – production, cost, and efficiency
  – specialization
  – supply and demand
  – firms
  – uncertainty and game theory
  – market failure
  – public sector
– macroeconomics
  – growth
  – business cycle
  – unemployment
  – inflation and monetary policy
  – fiscal policy
– international economics
– practice
  – theory
  – empirical investigation
  – profession
– agreements
– criticism

21. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
22. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)
 
23. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific
24. philosophy (metaphysics)
– central questions
– being and ontology
  – identity and change
– causality and time
  – necessity and possibility
  – cosmology and cosmogony
  – mind and matter
  – determinism and free will
  – religion and spirituality
– metaphysics of science
– rejections of metaphysics
– history and schools of metaphysics
  – pre-socratic metaphysics in greece
  – socrates and plato
  – aristotle
  – metaphysics in india
  – scholasticism and the middle ages
  – rationalism and continental rationalism
  – british empiricism
  – kant
  – kantians
  – early analytics philosophy and positivism
  – continental philosophy
  – process metaphysics
  – later analytical philosophy
 
25. psychology
– schools of thought
  – biological
  – behavioral
  – cognitive
  – social
  – existential-humanist
– themes
  – personality
  – unconscious mind
  – motivation
  – development
  – genes and environment
– applications
  – mental testing
  – mental health care
  – education
  – work
  – military and intelligence
  – health, well-being, and social change
– research methods
  – controlled experiments
  – statistical inference
  – technological assays
  – computer simulation
  – animal studies
  – qualitative and descriptive research
– contemporary issues
– ethics
  – humans
  – other animals

8th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

8th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. hygiene
hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
3. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
4. self-defense
 
5. sports
 
6. woodwork
 
7. music (composing)
– chord progression
– melody
– free playing
– computer methods
– structure
8. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
9. television (criticism)
 
10. theater (acting)
– classical acting
– stanislavski’s system
– method acting
– meisner technique
– practical aesthetics
11. film (criticism)
 
12. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
14. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
15. physics
– describing the nature, measuring and quantifying of bodies and their motion, dynamics etc.
  – newton’s laws of motion
  – mass, force, and weight
  – momentum and conservation of energy
  – gravity
  – energy, work, and their relationship
  – motion, position, and energy
  – different forms of energy
  – energy conservation, conversion, and transfer
  – energy source the transfer of energy from one source to work in another
– kinetic molecular theory
  – phases of matter and phase transitions
  – temperature and thermometers
  – energy and heat
  – heat flow: conduction, convection, and radiation
  – the three laws of thermodynamics
– waves and sounds
– electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism
– principles, sources, and properties of light
– basic quantities
  – acceleration
  – electric charge
  – energy
  – entropy
  – force
  – length
  – mass
  – matter
  – momentum
  – potential energy
  – space
  – temperature
  – time
  – velocity
 
16. sociology
– theoretical traditions
  – classical theory
  – 20th century social theory
– central theoretical problems
  – subjectivity and objectivity
  – structure and agency
  – synchrony and diachrony
– research methodology
  – sampling
  – methods
  – computational sociology
– scope and topics 
  – culture
  – criminality, deviance, law and punishment
  – communications and information technologies
  – economic sociology
  – education
  – environment
  – family, gender, and sexuality
  – health, illness, and the body
  – knowledge and science
  – leisure
  – peace, war, and conflict
  – political sociology
  – population and demography
  – public sociology
  – race and ethnic relations
  – religion
  – social change and development
  – social networks
  – social psychology
  – stratification, poverty and inequality
  – urban and rural sociology
  – violence
17. history (economic)
– ancient economic thought
– economic thought in the middle ages
– mercantilism and international trade
– pre-classical
– classical
– neoclassical
– alternative schools
– world wars, revolution and great depression
– austrian
– keynesianism
– chicago school
– games, evolution and growth
– post world war II and globalization
– post 2008 financial crisis
 
18. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
 
19. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief
20. philosophy (political)
– ancient traditions
  – china
  – greece
  – india
– medieval christianity
  – saint augustine
  – st. thomas aquinas
– islamic golden age
  – mutazilite vs. asharite
  – ibn khaldun
– medieval europe
– european rennaissance
  – niccolo machiavelli
– european enlightenment
  – john locke
– industrialization and the modern era
– contemporary

7th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

7th grade
 
 
1. study skills
– buzan mind maps
– rehearsal and rote learning
– reading and listening
– flashcard training
– keywords
– visual imagery
– acronyms and mnemonics
– exam strategies
– spacing
– organization and lifestyle changes
– study environment
 
2. social skills
– coordination
– mentoring
– negotiation
– persuasion
– service orientation
– social perceptiveness
 
3. survival skills
– shelter
– fire
– water
– food
– navigation
– mental preparedness
– important survival items
– common myths
 
4. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
5. first aid
– airway management
– cardiopulmonary resucitation
– emergency bleeding control
6. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
7. sports
 
8. music (recording)
9. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
10. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
11. applied arts (mixed media)
13. mathematics
– quantity
– structure
– space
– change
– foundations and philosophy
– logic
– discrete
– applied
14. psychology
– schools of thought
  – biological
  – behavioral
  – cognitive
  – social
  – existential-humanist
– themes
  – personality
  – unconscious mind
  – motivation
  – development
  – genes and environment
– applications
  – mental testing
  – mental health care
  – education
  – work
  – military and intelligence
  – health, well-being, and social change
– research methods
  – controlled experiments
  – statistical inference
  – technological assays
  – computer simulation
  – animal studies
  – qualitative and descriptive research
– contemporary issues
– ethics
  – humans
  – other animals
15. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
16. history (modern)
– modern era
– early modern period
  – asia
  – europe
  – north america
– late modern period
  – timeline
  – industrial revolutions
  – european dominance and the 19th century
– united states
  – science and philosophy
  – european decline and the 20th century
 
17. languages (linguistics)
– variation and universality
  – lexicon
  – discourse
  – dialect
  – structures
  – relativity
  – style
– approach
  – generative vs. functional theories of lanaguage
  – methodology
  – analysis
  – anthropology
  – sources
– areas of research
  – historical linguistics
  – sociolinguistics
  – developmental linguistics
  – neurolinguistics
– applied
– interdisciplinary fields
  – semiotics
  – language documentation
  – translation
  – biolinguistics
  – clinical
  – computational
  – evolutionary
  – forensic
18. writing (journalism)
19. philosophy (logic)
– concepts
  – logical form
  – semantics
  – inference
  – logical systems
  – logic and rationality
  – rival conceptions
– types
  – syllogistic logic
  – propositional logic
  – predicate logic
  – modal logic
  – informal reasoning and dialectic
  – mathematical
  – philosophical
  – computational
  – non-classical
– controversies
  – “is logic empirical?”
  – implication: strict or material
  – tolerating the impossible
  – rejection of logical truth

6th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

6th grade
 
1. cooking
– ingredients
– methods
– health and safety
– scientific aspects
– cuisines
2. hygiene
hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
3. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
4. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
5. sports
 
6. woodwork
 
7. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
8. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
9. theater (stage design)

10. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
11. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
12. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
13. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
14. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
15. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
16. politics (government)
– elections
– corruption
– government
– philosophies
– governments of the world
– political issues
– politics by region
– political parties
 
17. history (natural)
– ancient times
– medieval
– birth of scientific biology
18. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
19. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific
20. philosophy (history)
– western
– middle eastern
– indian
– buddhist
– east asian
– african
– indigenous american

5th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

5th grade
 
1. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
2. self-defense
 
3. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
 
4. sports
 
5. leadership/management
– planning
– organizing
– coordinating
– commanding
– controlling
– interpersonal
– informational
– decision
6. music (listening)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
7. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
 europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
8. theater (history)
– classical and hellenistic greece
– roman
– sanskrit
– chinese
– post-classical in the west
– eastern traditions
 
9. film (animation)
– traditional
– stop motion
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
– mechanical
10. fine arts (sculpture)
– stone
– metal
– glass
– pottery
– wood carving
12. chemistry
– matter
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – amount of substance
– phase
– bonding
– energy
– reaction
– ions and salts
– acidity and basicity
– redox
– equilibrium
– chemical laws
 
13. the law
– the constitution
– criminal
– taxes
 
14. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
15. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)
 
16. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

4th Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

4th grade
 
1. hygiene
 hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
2. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
3. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
4. sports
5. woodwork
6. music (history)
– eras of music
  – prehistoric
  – ancient music
  – biblical period
  – early music
– western art music
  – medieval
  – renaissance
  – baroque
  – classical era
  – romantic
  – 20th and 21st century
– classical music outside of europe
  – byzantium
  – asia
  – india
  – china
  – middle east
  – persia
 
7. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
8. theater (playwriting)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
– structure
– form
– genre
– narrator
– tense
9. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
10. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
11. biology
– cell theory
– evolution
– genetics
– homeostasis
– energy
– structural
– physiological
– research
– systematic
– kingdoms
– ecological and environmental
12. economics
– production
– distribution
– consumption of goods and services
13. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
14. writing (journalism)

3rd Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

1. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
 
2. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
 
3. time management
– environment conducive to effectiveness
– setting priorities
– carrying out prioritization
– reducing time on non-priorities
– incentives to modify behavior
4. sports
 
5. music (theory)
– pitch
– scales and modes
– consonance and dissonance
– rhythm
– melody
– chord
– harmony
– timbre
  – dynamics
  – articulation
– texture
– form
– expression
– notation
 
6. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
7. theater (acting)
– classical acting
– stanislavski’s system
– method acting
– meisner technique
– practical aesthetics
 
8. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
9. applied arts (mixed media)
 
10. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
11. geography
– physical
– human
– integrated
– geomatics
– regional
 
12. languages (linguistics)
– lexicon
– discourse
– dialect
– structures
– relativity
– style
 
13. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
 opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific

2nd Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

2nd grade
 
1. physical health
– diet
– exercise
– sleep
– disease
2. self-defense
 
3. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
4. sports
 
5. music (composing)
– chord progression
– melody
– free playing
– computer methods
– structure
 
6. dance (history)
– early dance
  – means of social communication and bonding
  – as folk celebrations
  – in ceremonies and rituals
  – as a method of healing
  – as a method of expression
– asia
  – indian classical dance
  – china
europe
  – court dancing to romanticism
  – ballet to contemporary dance
  – last 20th and early 21st centuries
– 20th century american
7. fine arts (photography)
– general concepts
– equipment
– forms of photography
– processing
– techniques
8. applied arts (architecture)
– styles
– theory
– buildings
– materials
– structural elements
9. mathematics
– quantity
– structure
– space
– change
– foundations and philosophy
– logic
– discrete
– applied
11. languages (foreign)
phonology
vocabulary
syntax
writing system
– mandarin
– spanish
– hindi
– arabic
– portuguese
– french
 
12. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

1st Grade Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

1st grade
 
1. manners
– hygiene
  – cover your mouth when sneezing
  – cover your mouth when yawning
– courtesy
  – say please and thank you
  – don’t interrupt
  – excuse me
  – ask permission
  – asking how are you?
  – knocking first
  – writing a thank you note
  – bad words
  – greet nicely
  – sharing
  – raising hands
  – no hitting
  – eat at the table
– cultural norms
  – being on time
  – privacy and personal space
  – being honest
  – waiting your turn
  – hand washing
– cultural differences (examples)
greetings in other cultures
  – bowing in japan instead of shaking hands
  – embracing in latin america instead of shaking hands
  – kissing cheeks in the mediterranean
please and excuse me
  – smiling instead in latin america
smiling
  – in asia not smiling is not rude
eye contact
  – respectful to avoid eye contact in korea
2. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
3. hygiene
– hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
4. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
5. sports
 
6. leadership/management
– planning
  – deciding what needs to happen in the future
  – plans of action
– organizing
– coordinating
  – creating structure so goals can be accomplished
– commanding
  – determine what needs to be done in a situation
  – getting people to do it
– controlling
  checking progress against plans
– interpersonal
  – coordination and interaction with others
– informational
  – handling, sharing, and analyzing information
7. music (recording)
 
8. dance (choreography)
– ballet
– contemporary
– jazz
– hip hop
– folk
– techno
– k pop
– religious
 
9. theater (scenic design)
 
10. film (filmmaking)
– initial story
– screenwriting
  – three act structure
  – the hero’s journey
  – syd field’s paradigm
  – the sequence approach
  – imagery
  – dialogue
  – plot
– casting
– shooting
  – basic terms
  – cinematography
  – lighting
  – special effects
– sound recording
– editing
  – editing techniques
– screening
 
11. fine arts (sculpture)
– stone
– metal
– glass
– pottery
– wood carving
12. earth science
– earth’s interior
– electromagnetic field
– atmosphere
– methodology
– earth’s spheres
  – atmosphere
  – biosphere
  – hydrosphere
  – lithosphere
  – pedosphere
  – systems
 
13. space science
– astronomy
– space exploration
– aeronautics
 
14. languages (greek and latin roots, stems, and prefixes)
 
15. writing (journalism)

Kindergarten Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.

 

Kindergarten
1. inventing
– play
– re-envision
– insight
– exploration
– improvement
 
2. sports
 
3. music (playing)
– percussion
– wind instruments
– stringed instruments
– electronic instruments
 
4. dance (performance)
– concert dance
– latin/rhythm
– swing
– traditional jazz
– ballroom
– freestyle
– hip hop
– disco
 
5. theater (puppetry)
 
6. film (animation)
– stop motion
  – clay
– computer
  – 2D
  – 3D
  – flipbook
  – sand
 
7. fine arts (painting)
– different media (oil, acrylic, etc.)
– symbolic
– still life
– body painting
– figure painting
– illustration
– landscape
– portrait
– cityscape
 
8. applied arts (printmaking)
– woodcut
– engraving
– etching
– screenprinting
– digital
9. agronomy (agricultural science)
– producing plants
– using plants
– environmentalism
  – resources
  – energy supply
  – waste and pollution
  – habitats and species
 
10. chemistry
– matter 
  – atom
  – element
  – compound
  – molecule
  – substance and mixture
  – amount of substance
 
11. languages (english)
– phonology
  – consonants
  – vowels
  – phonotactics
  – stress, rhythm and intonation
  – regional variation
– grammar
  – nouns and noun phrases
  – verbs and verb tense
  – syntax
– vocabulary
  – word formation processes
  – word origins
  – english loanwords and calques in other languages
 
12. writing (non-fiction)
– expository (explaining or informing the reader about a certain topic)
– argumentative
  – background
  – thesis
  – 3 claims
  – evidence for each claim
  – opposing views (2)
  – refutation of 2 opposing views
  – conclusion
opinion
  – both sides of argument
  – opinions
  – reasons for opinions
  – examples to support reasons
  – conclusions
– essay
  – introductory
  – body
  – transitions
  – conclusion
– biography
  – research
  – reading works already written about the subject
  – interviews
  – visit places significant to the subject’s life
  – explore what interested, influenced and inspired the subject
  – study the time and place of the subject’s life
  – analyzing the subject’s life
  – look for patterns
  – thesis statement
  – decide how to recount the person’s life
  – narrative
  – write
  – drafts
  – get someone to read it
  – proofread
  – title
  – sources
  – publish
– memoir
  – memories
– historical
  – outline
– scientific

 

 

Preschool Curriculum for the 21st Century

These are my ideas for a new type of school curriculum. This is just an overview and the subjects, of course, would need to be taught in an age appropriate way, which I haven’t done here. Ideally, the student would pick from each subject what interested them.
Preschool
 
1. manners
hygiene
  – cover your mouth when sneezing
  – cover your mouth when yawning
– courtesy
  – say please and thank you
  – don’t interrupt
  – excuse me
  – ask permission
  – asking how are you?
  – knocking first
  – writing a thank you note
  – bad words
  – greet nicely
  – sharing
  – raising hands
  – no hitting
  – eat at the table
– cultural norms
  – being on time
  – privacy and personal space
  – being honest
  – waiting your turn
  – hand washing
– cultural differences (examples)
greetings in other cultures
  – bowing in japan instead of shaking hands
  – embracing in latin america instead of shaking hands
  – kissing cheeks in the mediterranean
please and excuse me
  – smiling instead in latin america
smiling
  – in asia not smiling is not rude
eye contact
  – respectful to avoid eye contact in korea
2. gun safety
– pretend vs. real guns
– do not touch
– leave the area
– never play with a real gun
 
3. hygiene
– hands
  – washing with soap and water
  – when to wash hands
  – germs
– respiratory
  – cover your cough
  – using a tissue
– food
  – sanitizing surfaces
  – separate raw from cooked
  – cook thoroughly
  – keep food at safe temperatures
  – washing food
– water
  – clean water vs. dirty water
– kitchen
  – food storage
  – cleaning up
  – when to refrigerate
– bathroom
  – hand washing
  – taking a bath
– laundry
  – putting dirty clothes in the hamper 
– medical
  – cleaning a cut
– disinfectant
  – surfaces
– body
  – washing
  – brushing teeth
  – washing hair
  – changing clothes (dirty and clean)
  – nail trimming
  – sleep
  – don’t touch blood
  – getting a haircut
  – going to the doctor/dentist
4. mental health
– activity therapy
  – recreational exercise outside (hiking, tennis, etc.)
  – journaling
  – relaxation
  – arts and crafts
  – music therapy
  – camping
– expressive therapy (self expression through creative expression)
(excited, tender, scared, angry, sad, happy)
  – art
  – dance
  – drama
  – role play
  – writing
  – film based
  – poetry
  – play
  – sandplay
  – dreamwork
 
– cognitive behavioral therapy
  – thinking of problems and solutions
  – writing self-statements to counter negative thoughts
  – new opportunities to think positive thoughts
  – visualizing the best part of the day
  – learn to accept disappointment as part of life
 
– dialectical behavior therapy
  – mindfulness: observe, describe, participate
  – distress tolerance
  – emotion regulation
  – interpersonal effectiveness
 
– meditation
  – lie comfortably
  – close your eyes
  – breathe naturally
  – focus on breath
  – notice your body
  – return to your breath when your mind wanders
  – do for 2-3 minutes
5. sports
 
6. music (listening to different styles of music)
– pitch and melody
– harmony and chords
– rhythm
– expression
– genres
  – african
  – asian
  – avant garde
  – blues
  – caribbean
  – country
  – easy listening
  – electronic
  – folk
  – hip hop
  – jazz
  – latin
  – pop
  – r&b soul
  – rock
 
7. fine arts (drawing)
– materials
  – graphite
  – charcoal
  – pastels
  – marker
  – pen
  – ink
– technique
  – holding a pencil
  – shading
  – line weight
  – checking
  – is it ever finished?
– tone
  – light and dark
– form and proportion
  – measuring
  – dots and lines
– perspective
– artistry
  – negative space
  – viewing art from artists
– process
  – motor function
  – perception
  – visual memory
 
8. applied arts (mixed media)
9. biology
– cell theory
– evolution
– genetics
– homeostasis
– energy
– structural
– physiological
– research
– systematic
– kingdoms
– ecological and environmental
 
10. languages (linguistics)
– phonetics
– phonology
– morphology
– syntax
– semantics
– pragmatics
– discourse analysis
– stylistics
– semiotics
 
11. writing (fiction)
– character
– plot
– setting
– theme
– style
  – narrator
  – point of view
  – tone
  – suspension of disbelief

Prison reform: Apparently it’s a bad idea to put everyone in jail?

The U.S. has a problem.

Um, everyone is in jail.

WorldIncarceration

Oops, we imprisoned everyone.

How did this happen? What caused it?

Well, let’s look at the historical data.

ImprisonmentRate

(Source)

More people have been incarcerated since 1980 than ever before in U.S. history, and if this policy worked, you would think we would have a lower homicide rate that correlates.

HomicideRate

(Source)

But it doesn’t correlate.

Here is an overlay of the two for better comparison.

PrisonOverlay

Despite the dramatic rise of incarceration rates since 1980, it was a whole decade later, not until 1990, that it took for homicide rates to go down.

I chose homicide rates instead of say, violent crime rates because it is a better indicator of crime than property theft or all criminal activity combined. People tend to report murder and there is better documentation of that particular crime than something like domestic violence or rape.

Who is in prison?

incarcerationdemographics

 

  • Black men make up only 13% of the US population, but constitute 40% of prisoners. (Source, Source)
  • In contrast, white men make up 64% of the US population, but make up 39% of the incarcerated population. (SourceSource)
  • Men make up 50% of the population and yet, they are 82% of prisoners. (Source)
  • 64% of jail inmates have a mental health problem (Source)

 

What crimes are being committed?

crimebyoffense

Overwhelmingly, violent crime is the #1 reason for imprisonment.

What can be done to reform prisons?

  1. Rehabilitate the prisoner
  2. Make sliding scale bail

1. Rehabilitate the prisoner

In a 20 year study on prisoner rehabilitation, evidence was shown that a program of “cognitive behavioral therapy,” reduced recidivism rates in prisoners. The findings are as follows:

  • Without treatment, 82% returned to prison
  • With treatment, 61% returned to prison

With treatment we see a drop of 21% in recidivism rates. (Source)

What is cognitive behavioral therapy?

Briefly, CBT is changing your unhelpful or dysfunctional thought patterns in order to reduce negative or unwanted actions or emotions. Healthy thought patterns are taught to the client, as well as effective emotional regulation skills. The idea is that when thoughts are changed, behaviors and emotions follow.

For example:

Rob has a problem with how to effectively manage his anger. His girlfriend made a comment he perceived as offensive, so he punched a hole in the wall of their home. Rob feels terrible about scaring his wife and damaging the house.

Rob sees his therapist who suggests they do a “behavioral experiment.” Next Rob gets angry, the therapist suggests he physically leave the room, and try to distract himself from thinking about what he is so angry about, until he feels calmer. Then, at his next session, he compares how the experiment went.

Next session, Rob comes in and he explains that he carried out the behavioral experiment when his wife upset him again. He explains that when he got angry, he left the room and played solitaire on the computer until he calmed down. Then he returned to his wife, and while he did raise his voice, he did not resort to violence this time.

The therapist asks him how the experimental behavior went compared to his status quo reaction to anger. He admits that it went much better in the experimental condition because he didn’t feel regret that he had gotten violent or scared his wife. The therapist asks if he would give the technique a try again next time. He agrees that he would be open to trying the experiment again in the future.

This is a very simplified example, but it provides an idea of what cognitive behavioral therapy might look like in a particular instance.

Rehabilitation is not without controversy though. Many people find it morally wrong to offer easy access to mental health care for prisoners, when non-prisoners don’t get the same benefit.

I have a few things to say about that.

For one, I think everyone should have easier access to mental healthcare, prisoner or not. That is a failing of government as well as our culture as whole. $23,000 is spent per prisoner on incarceration facilities, per year. Over the past 20 years, this spending has increased and outpaced spending on essential government services such as education and public assistance. (Source) It begs the question, if we spent the money being funneled into prisons on non-prisoner social services, would we see a decrease in crime rates?

We don’t have an answer to that because it hasn’t been done, but isn’t it worth trying something other than continuing the status quo?

2. Make sliding scale bail

Bail as it is currently being utilized discriminates against the impoverished.

For example:

James allegedly possessed cocaine and is in jail awaiting trial. His bail is set at $25,000. Luckily, James has his own paper business and has enough money to pay some of the bail, which makes him less of a credit risk to the bail bondsman that gets him out. He can also pay back the bond because he has a high enough income.

Chris is not so fortunate. He also allegedly possessed cocaine and is in jail awaiting trial. His bail is also set at $25,000. The problem is though, Chris works as a temporary laborer and only has $500 to his name. The bail bondsman is less likely to give him the full bond considering his employment is spotty, he doesn’t have very much up front cash, and he is a high credit risk. He’s also unsure if he will ever be able to pay back the $25,000 to the bondsman anyway. Chris has little choice and stays in jail until his trial begins.

People like Chris make up an overwhemingly large percentage of those imprisoned. In New York city alone, 31% of non-felony defendants stay in jail because they cannot post the $500 bail. (Source)

After getting out of jail, people like Chris are less likely to be able to find a job or keep the one they had. Employers don’t tend to want to hire people who have a criminal record. It also difficult to find housing because of the same reason. This increases the likelihood that the ex-prisoner, guilty or not, is going to end up homeless.

Another thought I couldn’t find much research on was, does going to prison make an otherwise functional citizen more likely to commit crime?

My intuition tells me that it does. Prisons are more likely to breed violence or abuse and I have a hard time believing a person is not negatively impacted by that. I imagine going to prison is a trauma and like most people who experience trauma, there are repercussions. I think people coming out of any abusive environment are at higher risk of becoming abusive themselves.

If people like Chris were given a reduced bail, according to their income level, he would be less likely to be at risk for committing criminal acts because he would spend less time in the highly mentally disruptive prison environment.

Bail was originally supposed to exist to reduce the likelihood that someone was a flight risk by exchanging their money for their freedom before their trial. Presently, it allows people with money who are dangerous to be set free and those with less money who are not dangerous to be imprisoned, as well as, potentially creating more prisoners out of those who are jailed and poor, but innocent of their crime.

Subjects That Should Be Taught in Schools for the 21st Century

The subjects in parenthesis are included under the umbrella of the numbered subject but not limited to those subjects.

 

Practical Skills

  1. Study skills
  2. Social skills
  3. Personal finance
  4. Romantic relationships
  5. Survival
  6. Home repair
  7. Car repair
  8. Credit
  9. Cooking
  10. The Bible
  11. Manners
  12. Guns
  13. Finding a job
  14. The healthcare system
  15. Hygiene
  16. Mental health
  17. Physical health
  18. Self-defense
  19. First aid
  20. Time management
  21. Self-awareness
  22. Skepticism
  23. Inventing
  24. Multicultural theology
  25. Sports
  26. Negotiation/debate
  27. Business
  28. Woodwork
  29. Accounting
  30. Career paths
  31. Leadership/management
  32. Teaching

 

Art

  1. Music (listening, playing, composing, recording, theory, history)
  2. Dance (performance, choreography, history)
  3. Television (criticism, creation)
  4. Theater (acting, directing, history, playwriting, puppetry, stage design)
  5. Film (animation, criticism, filmmaking, theory, live action)
  6. Fine arts (graphic arts: drawing, painting, photography, sculpture)
  7. Applied arts (mixed media, printmaking, studio art, architecture)
  8. Design (fashion, user experience, graphic, product)

 

Technology

  1. Agronomy (agricultural science)
  2. Computer science (information technology)
  3. Engineering
  4. Medicine

 

Science

  1. Biology
  2. Chemistry
  3. Earth and space sciences (environmentalism)
  4. Mathematics
  5. Physics

 

Social sciences

  1. Economics
  2. The law
  3. Politics (government)
  4. Psychology
  5. Sociology

 

Humanities

  1. Geography
  2. History (natural, modern, economic, intellectual, political, scientific, world)
  3. Languages (english, linguistics, foreign languages, latin roots)
  4. Literature (comparative, theory, poetry, world, speed reading)
  5. Writing (fiction, non-fiction, journalism)
  6. Philosophy (history, logic, political, metaphysics, applied, schools, ethics)

Greatest Documentaries of All Time

This is a compilation of 10 lists of the Greatest Documentaries of All Time. The scale is from 1-8, the ones that are tied are not in any particular order.

man on wire 8
hoop dreams 7
grizzly man 7
the thin blue line 7
the up series 7
capturing the friedmans 7
shoah 6
grey gardens 6
night and fog 6
man with a movie camera 6
when we were kings 6
the fog of war 6
waltz with bashir 6
sans soleil 5
titicut follies 5
the gleaners & I 5
salesman 5
the act of killing 5
gimme shelter 5
harlan county, USA 5
crumb 5
roger & me 5
f for fake 5
enron: the smartest guys in the room 5
hearts and minds 4
the times of harvey milk 4
exit through the gift shop 4
hearts of darkness 4
the last waltz 4
inside job 4
jiro dreams of sushi 4
murderball 4
nanook of the north 4
the battle of chile 4
bowling for columbine 4
the sorrow and the pity 3
stop making sense 3
the look of silence 3
burden of dreams 3
buena vista social club 3
paradise lost 3
the war game 3
taxi to the dark side 3
dear zachary: a letter to a son about his father 3
king of kong: a fistful of quarters 3
marwencol 3
cave of forgotten dreams 3
high school 3
koyaanisqatsi 3
the imposter 3
born into brothels 3
spellbound 3
triumph of the will 3
march of the penguins 3
winged migration (le peuple migrateur) 3
an inconvenient truth 3
sherman’s march 3
gates of heaven 2
nostalgia for the light 2
close-up 2
primary 2
american movie 2
lessons of darkness 2
little dieter needs to fly 2
citizenfour 2
paris is burning 2
stories we tell 2
dark days 2
how to survive a plague 2
helvetica 2
bus 174 2
blackfish 2
amy 2
the interrupters 2
last train home 2
everyday sunshine: the story of fishbone 2
bill cunningham new york 2
food, inc 2
restrepo 2
wordplay 2
sweetgrass 2
jesus camp 2
supersize me 2
farenheit 9/11 2
woodstock 2
the cove 2
sicko 2
brother’s keeper 2
the atomic cafe 2
monterey pop 2
the wild parrots of telegraph hill 2
gasland 2
los angeles plays itself 1
chronicle of a summer 1
handsworth songs 1
histoire(s) du cinema 1
leviathan 1
in the year of the pig 1
west of the tracks 1
muscle shoals 1
welfare 1
land without bread 1
the overnighters 1
when the levees broke: a requiem in four acts 1
this is not a film 1
life itself 1
the square 1
brooklyn castle 1
fambul tok 1
biggie & tupac 1
the hellstrom chronicle 1
room 237 1
le sang des betes 1
the hour of the furnaces 1
20 feet from stardom 1
deliver us from evil 1
waste land 1
the invisible war 1
mea maxima culpa: silence in the house of god 1
the island president 1
no end in sight 1
bigger, stronger, faster 1
marley 1
in the shadow of the moon 1
the civil war 1
planet earth 1
eyes on the prize 1
religulous 1
dogtown and z-boys 1
the corporation 1
the celluloid closet 1
who killed the electric car? 1
touching the void 1
baraka 1
this film is not yet rated 1
tongues untied 1
capitalism: a love story 1
cosmos 1
why we fight 1
the aristocrats 1
the endless summer 1
if a tree falls 1
king corn 1
madonna: truth or dare 1
no direction home 1
the kid stays in the picture 1
the decline of western civilization 1
fast, cheap and out of control 1
metallica: some kind of monster 1
the queen of versailles 1
sisters in law 1

Greatest Movies of All Time

This is a compilation of 10 lists of the Greatest Movies of All Time. The scale is from 1-7, the ones that are tied are not in any particular order.

the godfather 7
citizen kane 7
on the waterfront 7
chinatown 7
singin in the rain 7
annie hall 7
taxi driver 7
schindler’s list 6
raging bull 6
casablanca 6
one flew over the cuckoo’s nest 6
gone with the wind 6
the wizard of oz 6
sunset blvd. 6
some like it hot 6
dr. strangelove 6
apocalpse now 6
to kill a mockingbird 6
jaws 6
pulp fiction 6
north by northwest 6
all about eve 6
lawrence of arabia 5
psycho 5
the godfather part II 5
vertigo 5
star wars 5
2001: a space odyssey 5
the bridge on the river kwai 5
it’s a wonderful life 5
the best years of our lives 5
a clockwork orange 5
goodfellas 5
the deer hunter 5
city lights 5
it happened one night 5
fargo 5
the grapes of wrath 5
the maltese falcon 5
the shawshank redemption 4
forrest gump 4
E.T. the extra terrestrial 4
amadeus 4
ben-hur 4
gladiator 4
raiders of the lost ark 4
rocky 4
a streetcar named desire 4
the philadelphia story 4
butch cassidy and the sundance kid 4
the apartment 4
high noon 4
mr. smith goes to washington 4
the graduate 4
double indemnity 4
rear window 4
the third man 4
modern times 4
the gold rush 4
blade runner 4
west side story 3
the lord or the rings: the return of the king 3
saving private ryan 3
unforgiven 3
an american in paris 3
braveheart 3
platoon 3
bonnie and clyde 3
midnight cowboy 3
close encounters of the third kind 3
network 3
the african queen 3
star wars: episode V – the empire strikes back 3
seven samurai 3
the silence of the lambs 3
the shining 3
american beauty 3
the general 3
rebecca 3
the wages of fear 3
the princess bride 3
roman holiday 3
the night of the hunter 3
toy story 3
the sound of music 2
doctor zhivago 2
the good, the bad, and the ugly 2
the treasure of the sierra madre 2
the pianist 2
all quiet on the western front 2
the french connection 2
tootsie 2
shane 2
the green mile 2
the great dictator 2
wuthering heights 2
rebel without a cause 2
frankenstein 2
yankee doodle dandy 2
the dark knight 2
fight club 2
the lord of the rings: the fellowship of the ring 2
inception 2
the matrix 2
se7en 2
the usual suspects 2
life is beautiful 2
leon: the professional 2
once upon a time in the west 2
back to the future 2
whiplash 2
memento 2
the lion king 2
alien 2
the lives of others 2
cinema paradiso 2
paths of glory 2
wall-e 2
aliens 2
M 2
reservoir dogs 2
amelie 2
requiem for a dream 2
toy story 3 2
eternal sunshine for the spotless mind 2
the sting 2
toy story 2
monty python and the holy grail 2
l.a. confidential 2
rashomon 2
a separation 2
metropolis 2
the treasure of the sierra madre 2
good will hunting 2
die hard 2
pan’s labyrinth 2
the big lebowski 2
cool hand luke 2
how to train your dragon 2
finding nemo 2
there will be blood 2
the 400 blows 2
persona 2
the grand budapest hotel 2
touch of evil 2
jurassic park 2
8 1/2 2
the terminator 2
groundhog day 2
la haine 2
the battle of algiers 2
dog day afternoon 2
beauty and the beast 2
king kong 2
snow white and the seven dwarves 2
stagecoach 2
the wild bunch 2
the searchers 2
who’s afraid of virginia woolf? 2
from here to eternity 1
titanic 1
my fair lady 1
patton 1
a place in the sun 1
giant 1
nashville 1
american graffiti 1
mutiny on the bounty 1
the lord of the rings: the two towers 1
star wars: episode IV – a new hope 1
city of god 1
spirited away 1
american history x 1
interstellar 1
the intouchables 1
rear window 1
terminator 2: judgement day 1
the departed 1
the prestige 1
django unchained 1
grave of the fireflies 1
the dark knight rises 1
princess mononoke 1
oldboy 1
once upon a time in america 1
das boot 1
star wars: episode VI – return of the jedi 1
witness for the prosecution 1
full metal jacket 1
bicycle thieves 1
snatch 1
inglourious basterds 1
the kid 1
for a few dollars more 1
indiana jones and the last crusade 1
scarface 1
yojimbo 1
batman begins 1
the hunt 1
3 idiots 1
the third man 1
inside out 1
the great escape 1
heat 1
my neighbor totoro 1
ran 1
ikiru 1
the secret in their eyes 1
the seventh seal 1
sunrise 1
lock, stock and two smoking barrels 1
howl’s moving castle 1
the message
wild strawberries 1
casino 1
the elephant man 1
warrior 1
the wolf of wall street 1
zootopia 1
judgment at nuremberg 1
a beautiful mind 1
v for vendetta 1
gran torino 1
incendies 1
trainspotting 1
dial m for murder 1
the sixth sense 1
the thing 1
no country for old men 1
into the wild 1
mary and max 1
gone girl 1
kill bill: vol. 1 1
rush 1
life of brian 1
hotel rwanda 1
stand by me 1
shutter island 1
in the name of the father 1
12 years a slave 1
amores perros 1
million dollar baby 1
hachi: a dog’s tale 1
nausicaa of the valley of the wind 1
stalker 1
gandhi 1
diabolique 1
the bourne ultimatum 1
before sunrise 1
donnie darko 1
the truman show 1
memories of murder 1
monsters, inc. 1
twelve monkeys 1
harry potter and the deathly hallows: part 2 1
sin city 1
strangers on a train 1
internal affairs 1
barry lyndon 1
prisoners 1
ip man 1
fanny and alexander 1
the imitation game 1
the avengers 1
guardians of the galaxy 1
the help 1
the king’s speech 1
a fistful of dollars 1
castle in the sky 1
in the mood for love 1
lagaan: once upon a time in india 1
the birth of a nation 1
fantasia 1
the manchurian candidate 1
duck soup 1
easy rider 1
bringing up baby 1
the hustler 1
tokyo story 1
mean streets 1
a star is born 1
the celebration 1
rosemary’s baby 1
boyhood 1
the adventures of robin hood 1
the bride of frankenstein 1
mary poppins 1
notorious 1
the big sleep 1

Greatest TV Shows of All Time

This is a compilation of 10 lists of Greatest TV Shows of All Time. The scale is from 1-9, the ones that are tied are not in any particular order.

The Sopranos 9

The Simpsons 9
Breaking Bad 8
The Wire 8
Battlestar Galactica 8
Friends 7
X-Files 7
Seinfeld 7
Mad Men 7
Lost 7
Arrested Development 7
Twin Peaks 7
The Shield 7
24 7
Game of Thrones 6
The West Wing 6
South Park 6
Star Trek 6
I Love Lucy 5
Buffy the Vampire Slayer 5
Six Feet Under 5
Curb Your Enthusiasm 5
Monty Python’s Flying Circus 5
Deadwood 5
Saturday Night Live 4
Sex and the City 4
MASH 4
The Twilight Zone 4
The Office 4
All in the Family 4
The Dick Van Dyke Show 4
Freaks and Geeks 4
Star Trek: The Next Generation 4
Doctor Who 4
Homicide: Life on the Street 4
The Office (UK) 4
Modern Family 3
The Mary Tyler Moore Show 3
House of Cards 3
Cheers 3
ER 3
Sherlock (U.K.) 3
Dexter 3
Friday Night Lights 3
Fraiser 3
The Carol Burnett Show 3
Downton Abbey 3
The Good Wife 3
Roseanne 3
Hill Street Blues 3
House 3
Taxi 3
Firefly 3
Alfred Hitchcock Presents 3
Sesame Street 3
The Bob Newhart Show 3
Fawlty Towers 3
The Daily Show 3
The Larry Sanders Show 3
My So-Called Life 3
Band of Brothers 3
Louie 3
The Walking Dead 2
Orange Is the New Black 2
Parks and Recreation 2
The Muppet Show 2
The Golden Girls 2
True Detective 2
Law & Order 2
Scrubs 2
Everybody Loves Raymond 2
The Cosby Show 2
Gunsmoke 2
The Honeymooners 2
I, Claudius 2
Late Night with David Letterman 2
The Prisoner 2
Roots 2
St. Elsewhere 2
Your Show of Shows 2

Futurama 2
Blackadder 2
Homeland 2
Red Dwarf 2
Justified 2
Fargo 2
Hannibal 2
Boardwalk Empire 2
30 Rock 1
Will & Grace 1
The Big Bang Theory 1
Homeland 1
Veep 1
Orphan Black 1
Gilmore Girls 1
The Wonder Years 1
Murphy Brown 1
Family Guy 1
Moonlighting 1
Entourage 1
Married… With Children 1
It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia 1
The Rockford Files 1
Family Ties 1
American Idol 1
Dallas 1
Mystery Science Theater 3000 1
The Odd Couple 1
The Oprah Winfrey Show 1
Playhouse 90 1
60 Minutes 1
Soap 1
Survivor 1
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson 1
The Andy Griffith Show 1
Columbo 1
NYPD Blue 1
Barney Miller 1
The Peep Show 1
The Colbert Report 1
Lonesome Dove 1
Frozen Planet 1
Only Fools and Horses… 1
Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 1
Top Gear 1
Archer 1
Daredevil 1
Black Mirror 1
Spaced 1
The People v. O.J. Simpson: American Crime Story 1
Silicon Valley 1
Broad City 1
Southland 1
Extras 1
Prison Break 1
Broadchurch 1
Life on Mars 1

List of tax breaks in America

I went through the IRS website and collected this list of things you can write off on your taxes for fun. This is to help poor people only. Rich people move along. We need your money really, really bad.

ALSO I AM NOT A CPA THIS IS NOT LEGAL ADVICE STOP IT!!!!

Moving

 – cost of storage
 – plane ticket
 – moving company
 – baggage fees
Business
 – baggage fees
 – utility bills
 – rent
 – if you get a new laptop
 – percentage of the time you use your laptop and the cost of it
 – office supplies
 – 50% of meals dining out with clients
 – 50% of meals dining out alone when traveling for business
 – entertainment with clients
 – cell phone but only business calls in your phone bill
 – percentage of the size of your house you use for business
 – if you worked fewer hours than last year
 – your website costs
 – tech supplies
 – interest on your credit card
 – interest on loans (car loan, percentage I use it for business like dropping you off at the airport, taking clients out, etc.)
 – accountant fees
 – bank fees
 – education expenses
 – training expenses
 – subscriptions to trade or professional publications
 – tax preparer fees
 – state income tax
 – ordinary expenses related to your trade
 – any transportation (train, bus, airplane, lyft, uber)
 – any lodging (hotels)
 – tips
 – business start up costs
 – research
 – advertising
 – books
 – licenses
 – computer software (even open source)
 – online services
 – subcontractors
 – shipping
 – postage
 – airplane but not the first day of travel
 – conventions
 – consulting fees
 – internet hosting and services
Investment
 – when you reinvest in any kind of fund (dividends)
 – interest
 – pension plan contributions
Other
 – charitable contributions
 – sales tax (electronics, furniture, engagement ring/wedding bands, a wedding, car)
 – advice and fees

Why are teachers paid so little when athletes make so much?

Teachers see us, sometimes, more than our own parents when we’re growing up. Day in, and day out, they get up at the crack of dawn, and begin arranging their classrooms, preparing for standardized testing, and writing lesson plans. This also includes administrative and teachers’ meetings. Then they teach for 8 hours or more. This is the part we see. But their work doesn’t end there. In the afternoons, some teachers work to help with extracurricular activities. Then stay late into the evening working too, returning emails, doing administrative tasks, and dealing with sometimes difficult children, and sometimes even more difficult parents. And their nights at home and weekends are consumed with grading papers, and preparing for the next day’s lesson.

I’ve never met a teacher who wasn’t completely overworked.

So why do we pay teachers so poorly, but athletes make so much?

Well, let’s dive into some data.

How much do teachers really make compared to athletes?

TeacherSalary

Teachers make a median salary of (except special education) of $51,640. All occupations in the US economy make a median income of $36,200. But what does “all occupations” mean? Does that include part time workers or only full time workers? I couldn’t find that information anywhere, but I assume it means part time as well as full time because when I looked up the median income in the US, meaning, (how much the largest amount of people are making), working full time median income in the US is $51,939. (Source)

How can that be? If this were the case, teachers would be making pretty close to the US median. Well, they are. Myth busted. In the US, that’s a solid middle class salary. BUT the BLS statistics don’t include real numbers of hours worked versus actual salary received.

Maybe we can find the answer if we look to the actual number of hours teachers put into the job per week.

In a Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation survey, teachers were polled on the number of hours they work daily. The average was 10 hours and 40 minutes a day. That’s 53 hours a week. If that’s the case, that means teachers’ real wages are $18.74/hour or, approximately $39,000/year. Because teachers are only paid for the times they are at school, not hourly, the salary appears higher than it actually is. The number of hours worked lowers the salary.

Some might say this measure is cheating the system. I actually find it to be more accurate. If you work more hours for the same salary, it makes sense to me that that should be included data in what your real salary is.

Job growth for teachers is approximately 6%. The median amount of job growth across all occupations in the country is 6.5%. This means that the job growth is just keeping up with the growing population. (Source)

And now we have our second answer, possibly the bigger answer.

Supply and demand. There are more teachers in the economy than are needed in the workforce. Sorry, but this is what the data says.

SupplyDemandLabor

(Source)

How does that work? 

Using the graph above for reference, allow me to use an example. Say I’m a receptionist. In this make believe economy, there are 215 available labor hours for receptionists in the economy needed by employers. Some employers are willing to pay a little more for better workers, some employers are willing to pay a little less, maybe they can only afford that, or maybe they think that’s what receptionists should be paid and they don’t really care about attracting the best workers, they just want the job done. After a while, an equilibrium will be reached. The average wage settles around $15/hour because that’s as little as receptionists are willing to work for, and employers are willing to pay. If employers offered $14/hour, I wouldn’t go work for them when I know other employers are going to pay $15/hour. That $14/hour employer has less of a good labor pool to choose from. This employer has a labor shortage. But say there’s an employer willing to pay $16/hour. There are more applications coming in for that job, and that employer gets to have his pick of the litter. This employer has a labor surplus.

The average, the standard for receptionists, settles to $15/hour per 215 billion labor hours available. This equilibrium, in this perfect, theoretical economy, means all the employers who want receptionists have them, and all the people wanting to be receptionists have jobs. The job growth keeps up with the population and economic growth.

On a macro level, if we generalize this to teachers, if teachers were overpaid, there would be more demand to become a teacher and less jobs to go around for the number of people who want to be teachers. This would cause the wage to go down for teachers until it reaches the equilibrium. Schools could pay their teachers less, the more teachers are knocking down their doors to becoming teachers.

The opposite would be a labor shortage. If there were too many seats available to become teachers, and not enough teachers applying or going to school to become teachers, schools would raise their offered salaries. This is because it causes a greater likelihood that people will apply to become teachers or go to school to become teachers, knowing there’s more money in it. Wouldn’t you rather take a job that paid more than a job that paid less?

I do have some good news, though. I have a hypothesis that teachers will get paid more in the future. I predict a teacher shortage as more and more baby boomers retire. This is because the majority of teachers, 39.4% have worked over 15 years, on average. This, combined with fertility rates stabilizing in the US, will most likely create a lot of open seats as far as opportunities for teachers looking to enter the workforce, causing the wage to go up in order to attract more workers.

The baby boomers retiring is going to change the population in the US that are contributing to social security, taking social security, and the availability of jobs. Especially in 2025, when the height of the baby boom will reach the age of 65. In 2010, we saw our first spike in the number of retirees, who turned 65 that year since the first spike in population during WWII.

USFertility

(Source)

What about athletes? Why do they make so much more than teachers?

Well, they actually don’t. In fact, they make less.

AthletesPay

Compare this with the median salary a teacher makes of $51,640. It is about $6,000 less than teachers make. Another busted myth.

However, athletes see the same job growth rate as teachers, 6%. (Source) Also, only 1 in 3,000 high school athletes make it into the professional industry.

What about star athletes?

This combined with the physical demands of the job, cause the highest paid workers, major league professionals to be paid higher. They have a unique, highly specialized skills that allows them to be more in demand, and higher paid as a result.

Careers are also cut short, the average athlete only being in commission for a few years before injury takes them out of the industry, or retirement.

The number of jobs in athletics was only 13,700 versus 1,517,400 for teachers.

Another reason teachers are paid more than athletes on average, is because being an athlete doesn’t require a degree at all, while teachers require at least a bachelor’s degree in order to get a job in teaching.

Cool general information.

Fastest growing occupations

FastestGrowingJobs

(Source)

Fastest declining jobs

DecliningJobs

Highest paid occupations

HighestPaidOccupations

Lowest paid occupations

LowestPaid

If you notice, the lowest paid jobs require the least education, and the highest paid occupations require much more education and have the most highly specialized work.

Top paid occupations

  1. Physicians
  2. Surgeons
  3. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons
  4. Internists
  5. Obstetricians and gynecologists

Lowest paid occupations

  1. Food preparation and serving workers
  2. Shampooers
  3. Cooks in fast food
  4. Dishwashers
  5. Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and bartender helpers

Should the physicians make less than food preparation and serving workers? Both are certainly hard work. But this is more of a moral question than a scientific one.

The best treatment for mental health distress we have to date

A word on the DSM and it’s credibility: It is my opinion, as someone actually at a university who is studying mental health care, is that there is scientific evidence being incorporated more and more into the DSM. But, diagnosis in general is considered by many, past and present day, in the mental health industry as possibly unnecessary, and possibly even damaging.

For example, regardless of if you have schizophrenia or not, regardless of if it’s mostly genetic, the treatment that is most effective doesn’t drastically change. Cognitive behavioral therapy has the most research behind it, and has now been shown to be more effective than medication for a long, exhaustive list of disorders.

Here is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a simple, easy to understand visual. Although it includes a vast array of techniques, this is a good 101.

CBTgraphic

(Source)

Basically, boiled down for time, everything affects everything. An event happens > followed by thoughts > followed by emotions, behavior, and physical reactions. So the thinking is, you can’t control the situation, but you can alter your thoughts. And thinking alternative, evidence based thoughts, actually tends to make people healthier. This reduces the negative emotions, behaviors, and physical reactions that result from the event and the thoughts.

CBT is solution focused and action oriented. Instead of looking for unconscious meaning behind behaviors and diagnosis, Behaviorism (part of CBT) thinks of something for example, depression, as a connection between a feared stimulus, an avoidance response. This results in a conditioned fear. Cognitive therapists think conscious thoughts influence behavior. The Cognitive and Behaviorist approach were combined to create what we now call Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. (Source)

What are some CBT techniques?

Some coping skills that are taught in CBT are challenging or debating patterns and beliefs, and replacing them with healthier patterns and beliefs.

For example, some unhealthy thoughts might be overgeneralizing, looking for evidence of the negative only, minimizing positives, and catastrophizing. Coming up with more realistic explanations or cognitions decreases emotions distress and self-defeating behavior. (Source)

Other techniques are distraction, imagery, motivational self-talk, relaxation, minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts, slow exposure to anxiety-provoking events, and goal setting.

This causes cognitive restructuring. The brain has neuroplasticity and can change. CBT actually modifies the neural circuits involved in regulation of negative emotions and fear extinction. It is able to change dysfunctions of the nervous system. This was discovered using neuroimaging techniques on neurobiological changes related to CBT before and after treatment. (Source)

These are some of the condition CBT has shown to be effective for:

  1. mood
  2. anxiety
  3. personality
  4. eating
  5. addiction
  6. dependence
  7. tics
  8. psychotic disorders
  9. schizophrenia
  10. fibromyalgia
(Lambert MJ, Bergin AE, Garfield SL (2004). “Introduction and Historical Overview”. In Lambert MJ. Bergin and Garfield’s Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3–15)

CBT in the short term is equivalent in effectiveness as medication. Long term, it is superior to medication. In a meta-analysis (comparison of many studies), after 16 weeks of treatment, 58.3% of patients felt relief from depression, versus 57.5% for the antidepressant. Later, medication patients were switched to placebo over the course of 12 months. The CBT group discontinued therapy except for 3 “booster sessions” over the course of the same 12 months. After 1 year, 76% of patients on the placebo relapsed into depression, while only 31% of CBT clients relapsed into depression. (Hollon SD et al, Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(4):417–422)

What causes autism and what is the most effective treatment?

First of all, how does autism manifest?

Behavioral: inappropriate social interaction, poor eye contact, compulsive behavior, impulsivity, repetitive movements, self-harm, or persistent repetition of words or actions
Developmental: learning disability or speech delay in a child
Cognitive: intense interest in a limited number of things or problem paying attention
Psychological: unaware of others’ emotions or depression
Also common: anxiety, change in voice, sensitivity to sound, or tic

Autism rates have been going up since we first started diagnosing it as autism.

AutismPrevalence

Why is this?

Initially, we want to say it’s because something is causing it to grow in number. Which might be true, might not be true, there is still research being done on the topic. But something that is interesting to note is diagnosis has changed since 1975.

What is the DSM and who writes it?

The DSM was originally created from collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, as well as a United States Army manual.

However, it is controversial.

The National Institute of Mental Health criticizes the manual as being unscientific and subjective. They state that the DSM has a lack of reliability because unlike physical symptoms such as heart disease or AIDS, the measures are on a consensus of clinical symptoms and not any objective laboratory measure. “In the rest of medicine, this would be equivalent to creating diagnostic systems based on the nature of chest pain or the quality of fever.

More and more, psychologists are finding the “biopsychosocial model” to be a more accurate representation of mental distress. The idea is that there are more than just a hand full of superficial criterion that make up mental health. It used to be that biology was considered the biggest factor at play, but these days, with all of the newest research coming out, we are finding that it’s more complex than that, and many, many factors contribute to it.

Here are some examples

BioPsychoSocial

(Source)

The DSM, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which is published by the American Psychological Association, is the Bible to the medical community. It is used to diagnose mental disorders.

And it’s changed over time.

DSM-I (1952) Autism-like symptoms were first classified as, “childhood schizophrenic“.

DSM-II (1968) The diagnostic criteria for childhood schizophrenic became broadened to include, “autistic, atypical, and withdrawn behavior.”

DSM-III (1980) “Infantile autism” was now included. Only 6 characteristics were listed and all must have been present in order to receive the diagnosis. “These changes in the field yielded a rapid increase in the number of individuals being diagnosed with autism” (Factor, Freeman, & Kardash, 1989)

DSM-IV (1994) Subtypes were added to the autism diagnosis. It grew from 6 to 16 symptoms and only 6 were needed for diagnosis. Now “qualitative impairment of social interaction” was included. It also included repetitive behavior, an impairment in communication. Onset must have been prior to age 3 though.

Here are other symptoms that were listed:

  1. lack of social or emotional reciprocity
  2. stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic lanaguage
  3. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.

DSM-5 (2013) Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified, which were previously considered as part of the autism spectrum, were removed.

Now, in order for diagnosis, a person must show all symptoms of social interaction and communication impairment, and additionally, 2 signs of repetitive behavior.

Asperger’s Syndrome has also been added under the umbrella of the autism spectrum.

So this is at least part of the responsibility for why incidence of autism have gone up. The diagnostic criteria has changed to become more broad. It’s not clear in the research if autism prevalence is also going up besides diagnostic criteria changing.

A word on the DSM and it’s credibility: It is my opinion, as someone actually at a university, who is studying mental health care, there is scientific evidence being incorporated more and more into the DSM. But, diagnosis in general is considered by many, past and present day, in the mental health industry as possibly unnecessary, and possibly even damaging.

For example, regardless of if you have autism or asperger’s, regardless of it being genetic, the treatment that is most effective doesn’t drastically change. Applied Behavioral Analysis has been shown to be more most effective, and the sooner the treatment is received, the better.

The most effective treatment for autism: Applied Behavioral Analysis

Specifically the Lovaas model, is a type of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) created by a psychology professor at UCLA. It incolved breaking down skills to their basic components, rewarding positive performance with praise and reinforcers, and then generalizing skills in a natural setting. The results are gaining language, academic, and basic living skills, while some children can even fully recover!

Applied behavioral analysis includes this model as well as data collection and replacement behavior strategies in order to understand and change behavior.

The evidence for effectiveness

EffectivenessOfABA

As you can see in the graph above, Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention has been shown to be superior to the control group of children who did not receive the treatment. In 47% of children receiving the treatment for an average of 40 hours a week, they were placed in regular classroom and considered, “indistinguishable” from their peers in follow-up studies.

The unfortunate part of this highly effective treatment is that the estimated cost for 40 hours of treatment a week is about $4,000 a month, with an average yearly cost of $40,000. However, many, many healthcare providers providing a sliding scale payment system based on the income of the family coming in for services.

Now. The biggest question we all have. What causes autism?

Just like the biopsychosocial model, there is not one cause of autism.

  1. It seems to be mostly genetic. It tends to run in families, or the families have related disabilities. It is not a single gene that contributes, and scientists and researchers are currently looking for irregular segments of genetic code. Genetics is currently considered the most significant cause of autism spectrum disorders. Studies of identical twins have shown heritability to be 90%. However, most cases of ASD have no recent evidence of family history

GenetisADS

(Source)

2. Brain shape and structure. Brain scans have shown a different shape and structure of the brain than neurotypical children.

3. Certain medical conditions such as fragile X syndrome (found in 20% of boys with autism), tuberus sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrom, and phenylketonuria.

4. Some ingested harmful substances during pregnancy.

5. De novo copy number variation (CNV) is when deletions and duplication occurs in DNA. This gene has been shown to contribute to 5-10% of cases of ASD.

6. Coding protein mutations are observed in approximately 20% of individuals with autism.

7. Age of the father, because sperm and eggs tend to mutate and wear down as they age. Chromosomal abnormalities also increase with age. ASD children of men over 40 years or older were 5.75 times more likely to have ASD after controlling for year of birth, socioeconomic status, and maternal age. Maternal age was not found to be associated with ASD, but is associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

Egg abnormalities increase with age 

EggAbnormalities

(Source)

MenBirthDefects

(Source)

8. Prenatal causes: in a meta-analysis of 40 studies, it has been connected that autism is also contributed to pregnancy such as diabetes, bleeding, psychiatric drugs, and stress.

9. Out of all the non-genetic factors for infectious processes, prenatal viral infection seems to be the principal cause of autism. Exposure to rubella or cytomegalovirus are viruses that activate the mother’s immune response and greatly increases the risk for autism, as well as schizophrenia. If this happens earlier in pregnancy, the chances increase.

10. Fetal testosterone levels in amniotic fluid have exhibited in several reports to be a contributor. This may also explain why boys are more likely to develop ASD than girls. One hypothesis is that it moves brain development closer to ability to see patterns, analyze complex systems, and diminishes communication and empathy. These behaviors are shown in individuals with autism.

11. Lead blood levels are significantly higher in autistic children than neurotypical children, some think this is what leads autistic children to develop pica, eating things such as chalk, glue, or dirt. However, it is not known for sure.

Things that do not cause autism

  1. Vaccines. Study after study after study has not proven a single connection between vaccines and autism. One or two particular studies showed a correlation but they were debunked, and the people who made the studies had their medical licenses taken away for fraud. Most children are diagnosed with autism around the same age that vaccines are introduced, leading parents to believe the vaccine is the cause of ASD. There is no sound evidence of this.
  2. Mother’s age is not correlated with autism.
  3. Ultrasounds
  4. Other things that do not cause autism: gastrointestinal (even though autistic children are more likely to have GI symptoms than atypical children) or immune system abnormalities, “vaccine overload”, allergies, exposure of children to drugs, mercury, dental fillings, infection, certain foods, or heavy metals. (Source, Source)
  5. Mothers not being affectionate with their children. (Bettelheim B. The Empty Fortress: Infantile Autism and the Birth of the Self. Free Press; 1967.)

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